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ATIP Panel at SC13. From left to right: ATIP's Dr. David KAHANER (Moderator), Prof. Depei QIAN (Beihang University, China), Dr. Kum Won CHO ( National Institute of Supercomputing & Networking, South Korea), Rob COOK (Queensland Cyber Infrastructure Foundation, Australia), Prof. N. BALAKRISHNAN (Indian Institute of Science, India), Prof. Taisuke BOKU (University of Tsukuba, Japan), and Panel Organizer Dr. Anne C. ELSTER, Director of the Heterogeneous and Parallel Computing Lab (HPC-Lab) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

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ATIP Reports - 2002

ATIP02.034: Synchrotron Radiation (in Asia)

 

ATIP/Asia,Japan, China, India, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand

Copyright © 2009 by the Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP).

This material may not be published, modified, or otherwise redistributed in whole or in part, in any form, without prior approval by ATIP, which reserves all rights.

 

 

ABSTRACT: Devices based on electron beams for producing radiation include synchrotrons, free-electron lasers, and (proposed) energy-recovery linear accelerators. These facilities are described in this report along with the characteristics of the radiation each produces. The status of synchrotron facilities in nine Asian countries is described; other synchrotrons under development are mentioned briefly. We discuss the existing forums and the need for creating new forums and international collaborations in Asia. For comparison, we cite a few examples of European Institutions and their large-scale science projects which brought together numerous scientists.

KEYWORDS: Government Policy on Science and Technology, Nanotechnology. Physics, Regional Overview of Science and Technology, Semiconductors

COUNTRY: Japan, China, India, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Other

DATE : 21 Aug 2002

 

REPORT CONTENTS

1. Introduction

1.1 Synchrotrons

1.2 Free-Electron Lasers

1.3 Energy-Recovery Linear Accelerators

Executive Summary

2. Synchrotron Radiation Facilities in Asia

2.1 Japan

2.1.1 Japanese Beam Physics Club

2.2 China

2.2.1 Particle Accelerator Society of China

2.3 India

2.3.1 Accelerator Meetings in India

2.4 Armenia

2.5 Korea

2.6 Singapore

2.7 Taiwan

3. Relocated Synchrotrons

3.1 Thailand

3.2 Middle East

3.3 Russia

3.4 Comment

4. Accelerator Forums

5. International Cooperation

6. Conclusions & Outlook

6.1 Is an Asian Accelerator Laboratory Feasible?

6.1.1 Technological Feasibility

6.1.2 Financial Viability:

6.1.3 Political Will

Electron beams have been used for a long time to generate radiation. When electrons whirl around in curved paths vigorously enough, they give off energy in the form of peculiarly pure X-rays. The faster they whirl, more the energy they give off while slowing down in the process. This is something of an irritant and unwanted by high energy particle physicists, but a boon for many others interested in a variety of applications, including chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine, and others. This interesting physical phenomenon of emission of light (with very special properties) by whirling electrons, now known by the very familiar name synchrotron radiation had its theoretical beginnings even before the discovery of X-rays in the nineteenth century [1,2,3,4]. These theoretical studies had to wait for over half a century until the development of charged-particle accelerator technology for direct observation and experimental verification. This was experimentally observed for the first time, on 24 April 1947, in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the 70 MeV electron synchrotron, built at the General Electric Company in Schenectady, New York and hence the name synchrotron radiation. The radiated power is related to the fourth-power of the reciprocal of the rest-mass. So, a proton radiates 1836^4 times less intensity than the electron under the same conditions. This restricts the choice of the charged-particles to electrons. An electron Volt (eV) is a unit of energy (the energy an electron or proton gains when it moves through a potential difference of 1 Volt) and this unit is commonly used when referring to the energy of X-rays.

Very high energies are common in the world of synchrotrons. The observation of synchrotron radiation generated a renewed interest in synchrotron theory. Synchrotron radiation was an irritant in early electron synchrotrons and storage rings. But it was soon realized that it was a very valuable product in itself for research applications requiring intense and bright sources of light over a wide range of wavelengths. Synchrotron radiation has numerous advantages over the traditional X-ray sources and lasers. Because of the utility of its properties, the 1970’s saw the creation of dedicated synchrotron radiation light sources. The popularity of these sources continues to grow. Many dedicated facilities have been operating with increasing brightness and certain other characteristics which we discuss in the following sections. Synchrotrons are not the only sources of radiation. With continuous advances in the charged-particle accelerator technology it has been possible to build different types of radiation sources with substantial control of the characteristics of the emitted radiation: coherence, polarization, wavelength, brilliance, flux, etc., each of which satisfies a particular experimental need. Radiation from synchrotrons and the other sources are extremely useful in a broad-spectrum of research programs including: structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, micro-electromechanical devices, X-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, materials characterization, and medical applications.

Here we shall briefly review the salient features of different Asian radiation facilities along with the characteristics of the emitted radiation.

There are nine countries in Asia which have synchrotrons. Seven are described below. The remaining two countries have the distinction of having synchrotrons given to them as gifts via relocation from other sites. This section briefly mentions the synchrotron relocated from The Netherlands to Russia.

We also discuss Accelerator Forums Accelerator-based Science and International Cooperation. We cite examples from the European Union which has several examples of international scientific facilities. We conclude with a thought about the possibility of an Asian Accelerator Laboratory.

Only twenty-three countries possess synchrotrons. In Appendix-A we briefly describe recent and new members of this club. The twenty-nine Asian synchrotrons are summarized in Table-A, after the Appendix.

Large-scale science programs necessarily require an assured and generous government funding. So, we have included some statistical data in Table-B and Table-C for selected Asian and European countries respectively. Lastly, we include a bibliography that should be useful for further research.

1.1    Synchrotrons

Among the energy sources, synchrotrons are the oldest and most widely used. The early part of synchrotron research was in the parasitic mode. That is, the exploitation of the unwanted radiation produced by the unavoidable energy loss from circular accelerators built for particle physics experiments. This gradually grew into the construction of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources in the 1970’s.

Synchrotron radiation is extremely intense over a broad range of wavelengths from the infrared through the visible and the ultraviolet and into the vacuum ultraviolet and soft and hard X-rays parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This high intensity over a very broad spectrum range and certain other properties (including, collimation, polarization, pulsed-time structure, partial coherence, high-vacuum environment, etc) make synchrotron radiation a very powerful tool for a variety of applications in basic and applied research and technology. It is particularly important in those parts of the electromagnetic spectrum where laser sources are (presently) not available, such as the vacuum ultraviolet, soft and hard X-rays, parts of the infrared, etc,. The applications of synchrotron light span a wide range of domains in fundamental science (chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine, etc.,) applied research (materials science, medical imaging, pharmaceutical R&D, advanced radiology, etc) and industrial technology (micro-fabrication, micro-analysis, photo-chemistry, etc).

A synchrotron radiation facility is based on the science & technology of charged-particle accelerators. Electrons being the lightest charged-particles radiate the most. Bunches of electrons are made to circulate (at speeds close to that of light, 299 thousand km/sec.) for several hours inside a large ring-shaped tube under very high vacuum. These rings have several beam lines with experimental stations and serve several sets of users simultaneously. Contrary to some expectations there are not enough synchrotron facilities to meet the demands of the user community. This is due to the high costs (several hundred million US$) and the requirement of very high technological expertise. In the world of synchrotrons, energy is the name of the game; a figure of one GeV is considered a threshold. Based on this threshold, there are about fifty storage rings in operation as synchrotron radiation sources in twenty-three countries. About a dozen are under construction and another dozen are being planned [5]. This has been driven by a very large, diverse, and growing user community which is estimated to be over ten-thousand. These twenty-three countries are: Armenia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, England, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine and the US. The continents of South America and Australia have only one facility each; and there are none in Africa. More than half the existing synchrotrons are in Asia (twenty-nine) in nine countries. Of these seventeen are in Japan. Even if this threshold energy criterion is relaxed by a factor of three, the list of countries would not change appreciably.

The development of synchrotron radiation sources can be summarized using the notion of generations. First generation sources were those in the parasitic mode and were consequently optimized for the requirements of particle collisions. Second generation sources were characterized for high flux production of X-rays. In these sources the chief sources of radiation were the dipole magnets which were used to bend the stored electron beam into a closed loop. All synchrotrons and storage rings have to use bending magnets to keep the electrons in a circular path. Thus the bending magnets naturally serve as the sources of synchrotron radiation. This has some limitations and to enhance certain characteristics of the radiation insertion devices were incorporated in the straight sections of the rings and this improves the quality of the radiation sources. Third generation sources were characterized by high brilliance achieved by incorporating the insertion devices in the extended straight-sections of the ring. Among the insertion devices, undulators or wigglers are most widely used. These consist of a structure which has a magnetic field varying periodically in polarity along the device; this can be achieved by an array of magnets. Such an arrangement is equivalent to a series of dipoles. This makes a many-fold increase in the output flux of the emitted radiation. The current generation (fourth generation) sources are based on Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) to produce ultra-bright hard X-ray pulses (wavelength less than 1.0 Å). However, it is to be noted that even though FELs are considered as fourth generation sources, they differ significantly from the other three generations. Nor do they replace the synchrotron radiation sources, and each is suited for different uses.

1.2    Free-Electron Lasers

A free-electron laser (FEL) can generate tunable, coherent, high power radiation over the entire electromagnetic spectrum and fill the spectral voids left by laser sources. Existing FELs have been operating from millimeter to about 100 nanometers with average power up to kilowatts and peak power up to gigawatts. A FEL can have the optical properties characteristics of conventional lasers: high spatial coherence and near diffraction limited beams. At the operational level an FEL differs significantly from a conventional laser in using a relativistic electron beam as its lasing medium, as opposed to bound atomic or molecular states -- hence the term free-electron laser. The FEL uses a beam of relativistic electrons (usually obtained from a linear accelerator) passing through an undulator or wiggler to amplify the laser light beam propagating along the axis of the light beam. Lasing occurs because the wiggler and the radiation combine to produce a beat wave. The discrete energy levels in a bound atomic/molecular state put a limit on the laser output, whereas in a FEL the electron energy transition occurs in a continuum. Apart from the high power output the FEL can produce a variety of pulse formats.

Tunable, hard X-ray (wavelength less than 1.0 Å) FELs have been proposed as fourth generation light sources. The major advantage of FELs is that they produce coherent light many orders of magnitude brighter than the incoherent light produced in synchrotrons, which were used for the previous three generations. Short-wavelength FELs are primarily directed toward X-ray research applications at wavelengths down to one angstrom. Applications in the X-ray region will have an impact similar to that which followed the invention of the laser at the visible wavelengths. There are proposals for the development of X-ray FELs. When these proposed facilities begin operating X-ray FELs may also be employed to study physics issues of fundamental nature [6].

1.3    Energy-Recovery Linear Accelerators

In a synchrotron source the energy lost by the electrons while emitting radiation is replenished by the microcavities in the ring. Thus the replenished electrons are recycled. In a FEL the electron beam supplied by the linear accelerator is dumped after a passage through the undulator. This requires a continuously operating high current linac (linear accelerator) which is prohibitively expensive to operate. So, instead of recycling the electrons as in synchrotrons or dumping as in the case of FEL, there is a proposal to recycle the energy itself. This is known as the energy-recovery linear accelerator (ERL). The latest step in the field of charged-particle accelerator-based X-ray radiation sources and still a Proposal, is to build an X-ray light source based on the ERL.

Outline of the ERL-Proposal: An electron bunch from an electron gun is pre-accelerated to about 10 MeV and then injected into a superconducting linac. The superconducting linac is used to minimize the losses from the linac walls. The bunches, after being accelerated to about several GeV, are directed (via bending magnets) into a series of undulators, thus producing high flux radiation. The used electron bunch is then directed (again via bending magnets) back into the superconducting linac 180 degreesout of phase. The dipoles (used for directing the bunch) and the insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) in the closed loop of the beam serve as excellent radiation sources. This is the outline of the principle on which the ERL-Proposal is based. This idea was suggested in 1965 by Maury Tigner [7,8]

As the name may suggest it is not the energy recovery alone that is the chief attraction. The parameters of the electron beam in an ERL are very different from those of synchrotron rings. The requirements of stable beam orbits for several hours puts severe restrictions on the achievable beam parameters. In a storage beam one has to be concerned with the perturbations which continue to influence the beam orbit even after many turns around the ring. Other issues include beam losses. Neither are concerns in an ERL. The beam parameters in an ERL can be varied from one pass to the other. This flexibility of the ERL eases the restrictions on the parameters of the undulators/wigglers.

The ERL-Project is completely based on the proven technology of the linac, undulators, wigglers, etc., and is expected to be completely viable. ERL-produced radiation is expected to have very high flux, tunable brilliance, picosecond bunch lengths, and flexible pulse structure. It will provide more highly coherent X-ray beams than storage rings and such a source will have numerous new applications.

From the above description, the diverse utility and importance of synchrotrons should be evident. At the same time there are few countries which can boast of having this novel light source. Having the most powerful synchrotrons in the world is technically and financially very challenging. The 8.0 GeV, SPring-8 synchrotron is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world and was completed in 1997 in Japan. Japan, along with the United States and the European Union lead in accelerator-based science research. Japan is also home to the largest number of synchrotrons. This is definitely related to Japan’s industrial success. The SPring-8 belongs to the category of hard X-ray machines, along with the 7.0 GeV, Advanced Photon Source (APS) in Argonne, USA and the 6.0 GeV, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Owing to their extremely high energy, these synchrotrons have their specific problems, and have forced the development of new techniques and new devices in the field of optics and detectors to ensure the required high stability of the electron beam. In view of the very unique challenges arising due to the very high energy, the three most powerful synchrotron laboratories have signed a Framework of Agreement for Collaboration [9].

With all the technical challenges it is to be noted that storage rings remain very flexible devices. By reusing most of the major components their performance can be upgraded at an incremental cost that is small as compared with the cost of construction of a new synchrotron. In recent years this flexibility is being innovatively exploited to relocate the very generously donated synchrotrons [10] to those locations which are under-represented in the World Synchrotron Map [5].

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END OF REPORT ATIP02.034a


ATIP02.034 (continued): Synchrotron Radiation (in Asia) 

Copyright © 2009 by the Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP).

This material may not be published, modified, or otherwise redistributed in whole or in part, in any form, without prior approval by ATIP, which reserves all rights.

       Twenty-three countries now possess synchrotrons; nine are in Asia, where twenty-nine synchrotrons are located.

       Japan’s 8.0 GeV, SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world, joining 16 other synchrotrons in that country.

       Of the two electron-positron facilities in Asia (there are seven in the world), one is in Japan. The second is the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC).

       India has done accelerator projects since 1940 and has the expertise and the experience of indigenously building two synchrotrons. It is one of the few countries doing research with radioactive-ion beams.

       Singapore has a purchased synchrotron. In Asia Thailand and Jordan have synchrotrons that were donated. A donated synchrotron is also in Russia.

       Accelerator facilities are expensive. The most successful sites emphasize a high degree of international collaboration; CERN in Geneva being the best example. Such a joint facility in Asia would be an important step but is probably limited by political rather than technical or financial issues.

IMPACT & ASSESSMENT

A multi-hundred million US dollar synchrotron is an important resource for a nation or a region. The applications of synchrotron light span a wide range of domains in fundamental science (chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine) applied research (materials science, medical imaging, pharmaceutical R&D, advanced radiology, etc) and industrial technology (micro-fabrication, micro-analysis, photo-chemistry, etc). It represents a measure of the technical capability and will of a country as well as a source of science and technology development. Asia has a commitment in this area, particularly Japan, but also countries such as China, India and Thailand. The synchrotron donated to Jordan may be important, not only in science/technology development but also in increasing regional cohesiveness.

It is not appropriate to describe the synchrotrons in a particular country independently of other facilities. A synchrotron is not the first machine constructed and there are always smaller machines preceding its construction. Also, there are always some accompanying accelerator programs in parallel or in tandem. So, in this section we shall describe the status of the synchrotron radiation facilities along with the other and most relevant accelerator programs in seven of the nine countries in Asia which possess synchrotrons. Thailand and Jordan are covered in the next section devoted to relocated synchrotrons. This description by no means is complete. Good sources for more technical descriptions of these facilities are their websites given in the links at the World Synchrotron Map website [5]. We have used some information available in the proceedings of the Asian Accelerator Conferences [11,12] and in the article by Namkung [13]. Other material was obtained from publications or/and personal contacts.

2.1    Japan

Japan, with the US and EU is one of the leading countries in accelerator-based science research. The 8.0 GeV, SPring synchrotron is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. It was completed in 1997 in Hyogo prefecture. Japan is also home to the largest number of synchrotrons. At present seven electron-positron colliders are operational in the world, one is in Japan (the only other one in Asia is the BEPC in China). All this is definitely related to Japan’s industrial success. The diverse accelerator programs across Japan warrant a separate report. In this section we shall just briefly outline some of the most relevant aspects of the Japanese accelerator program.

Accelerator-based science in Japan is as old as the subject itself. The first Cockroft-Walton accelerator in Japan was completed by Prof. Arakatsu at Tohoku University in 1934. In the same year another Cockroft-Walton accelerator was completed by Prof. Kikuchi at Osaka University. In 1937 Dr. Nishina completed the construction of a small cyclotron at RIKEN. He also began the construction of a large cyclotron in collaboration with Prof. Lawrence from the US. This remarkably early development of accelerator research in Japan was interrupted by World War-II. All the cyclotrons were destroyed and the programs were frozen along with the country’s nuclear physics programs. Accelerator programs were resurrected in 1951 with the reconstruction of cyclotrons at RIKEN, Osaka and Kyoto Universities. Japan has been increasing its activities since then. At present there are more than a thousand accelerators in Japan. About two-thirds are electron linacs used in hospitals for radiation therapy. The others are at universities while the larger ones are concentrated in major laboratories.

Japan’s High-Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) was established in 1972. KEK is located in Tsukuba Science City (now housing forty-six research institutions), which was created in 1963 with the approval of the Cabinet [14]. The numerous facilities at KEK include a 12 GeV proton synchrotron for nuclear physics, materials science and medical research; the electron-positron collider (KEK-B) for high energy physics; and electron synchrotrons to be described below. KEK is one of the major accelerator facilities in the world for high-energy physics research.

KEK also houses 2.5 GeV and 6.5 GeV synchrotrons. The other synchrotrons of Japan are listed in Table-A. Notable among these is the 8.0 GeV Super Photon Ring (SPring-8) synchrotron radiation facility which is located in Harima Science City in Hyogo Prefecture. The construction of SPring-8 began in 1991 and it was officially dedicated in 1997, one year ahead of schedule. It is the largest synchrotron in the world and belongs to the category of hard X-ray machines. Its construction cost US$1B and the annual operating costs are about US$10M.

Apart from the synchrotron radiation sources Japan has an active program in Free Electron Lasers (FEL). The first lasing of FEL in Japan was achieved in 1991. Dedicated FEL facilities based on linacs have been constructed. These provide energetic photon beams with wavelengths as short as 27.8 Å. The numerous other programs in Japan are beyond the scope of this Report.

2.1.1 Japanese Beam Physics Club

Accelerator & beam physics is generally not taught in most universities. Furthermore, accelerator physicists are scattered among laboratories (focusing on the day-to-day running of the machines) and various universities. This is true in Japan as elsewhere. So, the Japanese Beam Physics Club (JBPC) was created in the early 1990’s. It brings accelerator physicists together, and promotes beam physics studies and academic collaborations between laboratories and universities [15]. The first Beam Physics Meeting was held at the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, in March 1996. JBPC regularly holds its Annual Meetings, covering a broad range of topics through talks and posters [16].

The number of JBPC members is steadily growing. The Division of Beam Physics was tentatively organized in the Japanese Physical Society early in 2002. It will be firmly established in a few years. This is a very significant step as before this, the American Physical Society alone had a Beam Physics Division.

2.2    China

China has an excellent and long accelerator program. In 1956, Prof. Xie Jialin started China’s electron linac research. The first was a 30 MeV linac, which was completed in 1964. In the 1970’s several linacs were made, mostly for medical applications. China has four synchrotron facilities, one of each generation. In the 1980’s the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) was constructed. It is part of the Beijing Electron and Positron Collider (BEPC) which is described below. BSRF operates in the parasitic mode for about two months a year. BEPC also has a dedicated synchrotron source. The construction of the 800 MeV Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Facility (HESYRL) was started in 1984 and has been serving users since 1993. It is located at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

China has the experience of building first, second and third-generation synchrotrons. In order to satisfy the ever increasing demands of users, a fourth-generation machine is now under active planning at an industrial park in the Pudong area of Shanghai. This is the 3.5 GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).

Of the two electron-positron facilities in Asia (there are seven in the world), the one in Japan has been described. The second is the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC). Its construction was started in 1984 and the first collision was realized in 1988. This marked China’s entry into experimental high energy physics in a major way. It is the highest luminosity collider in the Tau-Charm Energy Regime. BEPC is located at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). There are now serious proposals to upgrade BEPC to BEPC-II. Encouraged by the rich physics at the Tau-Charm energy regime, there are active proposals to construct an advanced dedicated facility, the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory (BTCF).

The first Asian Accelerator School (AAS) was organized from 22 November – 04 December 1999 in Beijing, China. The chief theme of the school was Physics and Engineering of High Performance Electron Storage Rings and Application of Superconducting Technology [17].

2.2.1 Particle Accelerator Society of China

The Particle Accelerator Society of China (PASC) was established in 1980 [18,19]. It should be noted that the Division of Physics of Beams in the American Physical Society was established only in 1985. The Inter-Divisional Group on Accelerators (IGA) in the European Physical Society (EPS) was established in 1988. EPS has eleven divisions and the elevation of the IGA’s status to a complete division is still being awaited [20]. PASC has a dedicated Beam Dynamics Panel.

PASC very regularly holds Members’ Representative Meetings, Council Meetings, and also organizes academic meetings on a variety of themes ranging from medical accelerators to free-electron lasers. Its activities also include Schools and Symposia. PASC is playing an active role in the development of accelerators and is in close collaboration with ICFA and ACFA, organizations that are described in the section on Forums.

2.3    India

The accelerator programs in India also have a long history, beginning in 1940 when Prof. Meghnad Saha developed a 37 inch cyclotron at the Calcutta based Institute of Nuclear Physics, now called the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP). In 1950, a 1.0 MV cyclotron was commissioned at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai (previously named Bombay). In 1960, a 5.5 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator was installed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Mumbai. In the same decade, a 2.5 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator was installed at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur and a 5.0 MV proton cyclotron was installed at Panjab University, Chandigarh. In 1978, an indigenously designed and built 224 cm diameter Variable Energy Cyclotron was made operational at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) in Calcutta. There are several Pelletron facilities which have been operating for over a decade. These include: the 6.0 MV Pelletron at the Institute of Physics (IOP) in Bhubaneshwar and the 14.0 MV Pelletron at TIFR. The Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) in New Delhi has a very energetic 15 MV Pelletron, which can accelerate very heavy ions to high energies [21]. Very recently a beam of the radioactive isotope beryllium-7 was produced at the NSC. This marks India’s entry into an elite group of nations which are doing research with radioactive-ion beams [22].

India has the expertise and the experience of indigenously building two synchrotrons, both at the Centre of Advanced Technology (CAT) in Indore. Indus-I, the first synchrotron source in India was commissioned in July 1999 and is in regular operation. It is a 450 MeV storage ring with a 20 MeV microtron as its injector. The beam energy of this synchrotron can be increased up to 700 MeV.

The second synchrotron is the Indus-II, whose proposed energy has been increased from 2.0 GeV to 2.5 GeV. The installation and the commissioning of the storage ring are expected to be completed by middle of 2003. Indus-II has provision for 22 beam lines. Six beam lines are expected to be operational by 2005.

Other accelerator activities in India also include the construction of a 142 cm Superconducting Cyclotron at VECC, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005. Planning is now underway for the spallation neutron source, which is designed to have a 100 MeV linac as an injector and a 1.0 GeV proton synchrotron [23].

2.3.1 Accelerator Meetings in India

India is one of the very few countries which regularly hold Accelerator and Beam Physics Meetings. For several years the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) at Indore has been holding a series of Schools on the Physics of Beams every year in December–January. This School is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), with the aim of dissemination more widely in India, knowledge and interest in beam physics. The School attracts several speakers from the premiere accelerator laboratories around the world. The Schools have been very well-structured with tutorials and a few laboratory experiments. The participants of the School are further attracted to the Summer Research Program conducted at CAT (see the very detailed School Reports in Ref. [24]). For over a decade the IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre has been holding the tri-annual National Seminars on Physics and Technology of Particle Accelerators and their Applications. This series of National Seminars known by the acronym PATPAA provide a forum where accelerator physicists and technical personnel can meet and exchange their ideas and new developments. These PATPAA conferences, conducted once in three years, attract a large participation from across the entire nation and some from abroad with enthusiasm and interest [25].

The above Schools are extremely significant since, the Accelerator & Beam Physics and associated technologies are not yet part of the regular university curriculum in most parts of the world. This curious scenario is being faced by the interdisciplinary field of Accelerator & Beam Physics, all over the world [26].

2.4 Armenia

Armenia is the most recent country to join the world synchrotron map as it is actively planning to build the 3.2 GeV, CANDLE (Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission). It is envisaged as an international regional facility leading to collaborations with neighboring countries and beyond. Armenia was hoping to receive the 800 MeV BESSY-I, which Germany gave to Jordan. In that selection Armenia was the first runner-up. Armenia is one of the eleven members of the international synchrotron facility in the Middle East, which shall be described below.

Americans of Armenian decent have been very actively campaigning for the synchrotron facility in Armenia. The US Department of Energy has awarded half a million US$ for the preparation of a Technical Design Analysis report for the proposed construction of the 3.2 GeV synchrotron facility. CANDLE is to be located in Yerevan and is projected to be operational in the year 2006. It is expected to have 50 beam lines (a very large number) and is expected to serve a very diverse set of users in the region [27].

2.5    Korea

In the early 1960’s there were three accelerators in Korea: a 1.5 MV cyclotron at Seoul National University (SNU), two Cockroft-Walton-type accelerators, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Yonsei University. In the late 1970’s Prof. Chung at SNU constructed a 1.5 MV Tandem Van de Graaff which is still in use for materials research. There are several cyclotrons and microtrons for medical treatment.

In 1988, Pohang University of Science and Technology (PSTECH) launched a project to construct a synchrotron. It was funded by the Korean Government and the Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). The Pohang Light Source (PLS) is a 2.0 - 2.5 GeV , third-generation synchrotron radiation source and has been serving users since 1995. Presently there are 14 beam lines with plans to have 40 beam lines in operation by 2008.

With the rapid industrialization in Korea, there is an ever increasing demand for electrical power. Even the nuclear power production requires enhancement and innovation. One possible option is the accelerator-based transmutation of the spent fuel. There is the KAERI operated Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), using a 1.0 GeV proton linac to drive a 1000 MW test reactor which can produce up to 400 MW of electrical power.

2.6 Singapore

The 700 MeV Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS) is located on the campus of the National Singapore University. After a construction period of four years, SSLS started operating in 2001. The current programs include: lithography, nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface science and infrared spectroscopy/microscopy. There are plans to increase the number of beam lines and development of an X-ray FEL.

SSLS is bound to promote international cooperation. The third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS-3) was held in Singapore from 21-24 January 2002. The third Overseas Chinese Physics Association (OCPA) International Accelerator School, is scheduled to be held from 25 July to 3 August 2002 in Singapore [28].

2.7 Taiwan

Taiwan has the unique distinction of having the earliest accelerator history in Asia. In 1934 a Cockroft-Walton accelerator was built in Taipei. With such an early start, accelerator activities were in a flourishing state until World War-II at which point all accelerator activities were frozen for about ten years, same as in the case of Japan. Today, Taiwan has about twenty small accelerators for nuclear and applied research, besides a 1.5 GeV synchrotron source to be described below. The small accelerators include: three Cockroft-Walton accelerators; six ion implantors; two Van de Graaff accelerators; two tandem electrostatic accelerators; two cyclotrons and seven electron linacs (up to 30 MeV). These machines are used in applied sectors including, radio-isotope production for medical applications; materials science and in atomic physics and low-energy nuclear physics.

The Taiwan Light Source (TLS) located at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Centre (SRRC), in the city of Hsinchu was commissioned in 1993. It is a third-generation 1.5 GeV light source. The research topics at SRRC include: surfaces and interfaces; atomic and molecular sciences; materials science; instrumentation and industrial applications. The monthly beam availability normally exceeds an efficiency of over 90 %.

Synchrotrons are flexible facilities. They can be upgraded by reutilizing their major components. This flexibility has been very innovatively exploited in recent years when synchrotrons are donated and reinstalled in new locations. This tradition of synchrotron gifts was started by Japan and then followed by Germany, and Netherlands. In this section we describe the three such relocated synchrotrons.

3.1    Thailand

Japan donated a 1.0 GeV synchrotron to Thailand in 1996 [29] and the Asia-Pacific region thus became the birthplace of the Era of the Relocated Synchrotrons. The Siam Photon Source is housed in the specially created, National Synchrotron Research Centre (NSRC) on the campus of Suranaree University of Technology in the city of Nakhon Ratchasima, 250 km north-east of Bangkok. The Siam-Photon Source is Thailand’s first synchrotron facility and is intended to serve scientists throughout Southeast Asia. The original synchrotron light source, called SORTEC, was located in Tsukuba Science City, near KEK, Japan’s High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Thailand’s Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment received the machine as a gift, and has been investing about US$15M to move and upgrade it. This includes the doubling of its circumference to 81m and tailoring the machine to produce narrow bright beams of soft X-rays and ultraviolet radiation. Scientists from KEK have helped in the redesign and are training Thai scientists to operate their new facility. Professor Tokehiko Ishii, the retired Director of the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the University of Tokyo is the key figure in orchestrating the donation. He is also overseeing the technical and scientific aspects of the transfer and upgrading of the synchrotron. The plan is to use the Siam Photon Source for physics and chemistry research, with some industrial research in semiconductors, medicine, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. The Siam Photon Source is scheduled to go on-line in 2003 [30].

3.2    Middle East

Jordan was the first country from the Middle East to join the group of twenty-three countries possessing a synchrotron light source [31,32]. This became possible as Germany decided to give BESSY-I, a 800 MeV synchrotron, fully functioning since 1982 in Berlin, to a site in the Middle East. The facility is worth about US $60M. BESSY stands for Berliner Elektronen-Spiecherring für Synchrotronstrahlung [33]. BESSY-I is to be replaced by the more powerful BESSY-II, a 1900 MeV synchrotron located in another part of Berlin. The German gift of BESSY-I is viewed by many as an extension of their environmentally responsible attitude toward reusing and recycling, to large-scale research facilities.

The idea of donating BESSY-I came from Herman Winick of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, a member of the Machine Advisory Committee of BESSY-II, and the fellow committee member Gustav-Adolf Voss, a former director of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg, Germany [34,35]. The Project is now known by the acronym SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) [36] (the term open sesame is from the Arabian Nights Entertainments, and means: achieving what is normally unattainable). The SESAME Project reached a major milestone in late 2000 with the selection of a site in Jordan [37]. SESAME will be the upgraded reincarnation of BESSY-I [38].

A controlled and documented dismantling of BESSY-I was completed by a team of experts from Yerevan, Armenia and Novosibirsk, Russia. The required funds for the dismantling came from the SESAME Member Countries and UNESCO. On 7th June 2002 the ship Conti Harmoni, started its trip toward Al-Aqabe, Jordan, carrying the entire BESSY-I. Once in Jordan BESSY will be upgraded and reassembled in a new configuration, a 2.0 GeV third-generation high performance light source [39]. The upcoming joint synchrotron radiation facility, which would be the first regional center for cooperation in basic research in the Middle East will also serve as a seed for an International Center built around the facility [40]. SESAME will be located at a site in Allaan, about thirty km from the Capital Amman and the same distance from the King Hussein/Allenby Bridge Crossing on the Jordan river. Jordan is providing 100,000m^2 of land, along with several useful buildings at the site. SESAME will be open to scientists from any country in the region or elsewhere. Because of this openness, organizers see its potential as not only a world-class research center, but also as a politically important example of scientific cooperation in the region. Such a center will be the first of its kind in the region. The Center will be operated and supported by its thirteen Interim Council Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan Palestine, Turkey and United Arab Emirates) with support from countries including, Armenia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Russia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and the US [31]. Other countries which have expressed an interest to join this new activity include, Tunisia and Yemen [41]. It is hoped that the new center will be able to mirror CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in stimulating regional research collaboration [42,43]. Also much like CERN, SESAME is under the political umbrella of UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and is expected to promote science and foster international cooperation. A broad-spectrum of planned research programs include, structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, micro-electromechanical devices, X-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, materials characterization, and medical applications.

It is an effort of several years that the idea of donation has evolved from a vision to a system. A turning point was the Sinai Physics Meeting, held at the Egyptian resort of Dahab, on the Gulf of Aqaba, in November 1995 [44]. This Meeting was conceived by the Italian physicist Sergio Fubini [45] of University of Turin, which led directly to the formation of the Middle East Science Collaboration (MESC) in 1997. MESC constitutes a network of scientists promoting research cooperation between Europe, the US and the Middle East. The idea of relocating BESSY-I was further taken through MESC in a series of meetings held under the auspices of UNESCO, CERN, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), and others. Herwig Schopper, former Director-General of CERN and an active member of MESC is the President of the SESAME Project’s Interim Council. Koichiro Matsuura, soon after resuming the office of the Director-General of UNESCO, had underwritten an additional US$400,000 to expedite the project. Jordan’s King Abdullah II has pledged US$ 1M a year for five years and the member countries are expected to contribute US$50,000 per year for the three years of construction. The installation and upgrading costs of the synchrotron are estimated at about US$20M. A similar amount is required over the next five years for installing and equipping ten beam lines. Annual operating costs will be about US$3.5M. With continued progress and support from the SESAME members and several other sources it is expected that research will start in 2006.

The SESAME Training Committee at ICTP is coordinating the programs which are enabling the trainees to join research groups and technical teams at several synchrotron laboratories [46]. They are getting training in research and experience to work on the current technical issues relevant to the maintenance, running and repairing of a synchrotron light source. Several workshops (themes include: Materials Research; Structural Molecular Biology; Bioinformatics; Structural Modeling; Engineering Aspects; etc) have been held to train scientists in all aspects of the SESAME Project: accelerator technology, beam lines, and research applications of the synchrotron radiation. These workshops bring scientists together from SESAME member countries along with experts from outside the region. Among the participants from these Workshops, some were selected for further training (from few weeks up to a year) in the premier synchrotron radiation laboratories in Europe and the US. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has offered five grants of six-month fellowships for training in accelerator technology and applications of synchrotron radiation [47].

3.3    Russia

A Dutch accelerator and storage ring used for nuclear physics is being moved to Dubna, to add to Russia’s Synchrotron capability [48]. The original facility, was located at the Institute of Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) in Amsterdam. This will become the 1.2 GeV, Dubna Synchrotron Radiation Source (DELSY), located at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna.

3.4 Comment

Siam, SESAME and DELSY are very unique facilities as they are being built by relocating donated synchrotrons.

We note that many countries from the Middle East have yet to participate in the SESAME project, and in fact some have chosen not to do so. Science & education remains a very low priority in the region and these countries may be missing an opportunity for international scientific collaboration [49,50]. The same is true on the continent of Africa and to a lesser extent in some parts of Asia. Many of these latter countries have enjoyed very old ties with the Middle East. In recent decades, these ties have been strengthened by their large presence in the region, leading to active economic collaboration. This could have led to a keen interest in SESAME. “Nature” in one of its editorials aptly advised, “... any potential funder is not to hold back, for this would be a worthwhile investment. Initiatives such as this do not come around often. When they do, they should be supported unhesitatingly…” [51]. Scientific cooperation across the geographical and cultural borders helps stimulate not only the advancement of ideas in the professional field, but also the building of lasting bridges and the establishment of contacts on the personal and more importantly the international level. The costs involved for participation are not much, for any country—however small or poor—and the rewards are many. Some of the Western countries are wisely joining (as observers) by contributing amounts as low as just a few thousand dollars [52].

Beam Physics is the study of particle and photon beams, their nature, their behavior, and interactions, including the interaction of beams with matter, or beams with beams, and of particle beams with radiation. The growth of beam physics is very intimately tied with the expanding base of particle accelerator technology and certain other beam-based devices. Accelerators are used in almost every field of physics from solid state to elementary particles physics. Numerous beam-based devices such as electron microscopes, etc., are playing a significant role in various areas of science and industry. Accelerators are finding a variety of applications such as ion implantation and lithography in industry, medicine radiotherapy, food sterilization, and energy production. The need and importance of accelerators, and its impact on the society are well established.

Unlike many other areas of physics, beam physics is not well represented, to some extent because beam physics and associated technologies are not yet part of the regular university curriculum in most parts of the world. The learning of such an interdisciplinary science is done to a very large extent individually and through the very few schools when & where available. This very curious scenario is exacerbated by the absence of adequate number of forums.

With strong economic growth over the last few decades, Asian countries have increasingly promoted accelerator-based science. These large facilities require substantial resources to sustain the required long-term R&D programs. This naturally leads to an increased collaboration among these countries to share resources and expertise. This led to the creation of the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA), which actively encourages regional cooperation in accelerator science and technology [53]. This organization was formed in 1996 and its members now include Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Australia [53].

The first Asian Particle Accelerator Conference (APAC) was held in 1998 at KEK under the auspices of the ACFA, stressed the importance of regional collaboration among Asians in the field of accelerator science and technology as well as accelerator-based science. The Second APAC was held during 17-21 September 2001 in Beijing, China [12]. APAC brings together hundreds of participants from the numerous accelerator laboratories and accelerator groups in universities in Asia and beyond. It provides a forum to exchange experiences and views about on-going projects and the proposed accelerator programs (upgrades, new facilities, etc).

The first Asian Accelerator School (AAS) was organized from 22 November–04 December 1999 in Beijing. The chief theme of the school was Physics and Engineering of High Performance Electron Storage Rings and Application of Superconducting Technology [17]. The second AAS is scheduled to be held in Indore, India in 2003. AAS serves the community through its training in accelerators & beam physics.

Globally speaking, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) [54], provides an excellent framework for collaboration and forums. ICFA along with ACFA and its European counterpart ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) provide very active forums to discuss and implement plans for further promoting collaborative accelerator-based science. Their primary purpose is to strengthen such collaboration, to encourage future projects, and to make recommendations to governments. It is noteworthy to see how the ICFA Beam Dynamics Panel has contributed to the accelerator & beam physics. The very regularly held ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshops and the ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletters are well-attended and widely-read. ICFA workshops cover a variety of topics. Among these, the topic of Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics (QABP) needs a special mention. QABP is a new field and ICFA is nurturing it via a series of meetings. The first in this series was held at Monterrey, CA in 1998. The second was at Capri, Italy in 2000 and the next is scheduled to be held in Japan in January 2003. If not for ICFA, this research frontier with the promise of technologies to come, would have lead an unrecognized existence [55].

The European Particle Accelerator Conferences (EPAC) and the CERN Accelerator Schools (CAS) are about two decades old as are the Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) in the US and the US Particle Accelerator Schools (USPAS). While APAC and AAS were started in 1998 and 1999 respectively. EPAC and PAC are held every alternate year respectively and APAC is held once in three years. USPAS and CAS are organized several times a year, in different locations with some common core-topics and some varying specialized topics. In contrast, the AAS has been held only once and the expected frequency seems to be once in three years. To enhance the required training and to sustain an optimum growth of accelerator science & technology AAS need to be held more frequently.

There are only a few Accelerator & Beam Physics Associations/Societies operating nationally. The Japanese Beam Physics Club [15,16] and the Particle Accelerator Society of China [18,19] provide the required Forums in their respective countries. When created, such Associations/Societies will provide the much needed Forums [26], strengthening the accelerator & beam physics community nationally and beyond as is the case in other areas of Physics. Possibly, the Asia Pacific Centre for Theoretical Physics (APCTP), Seoul, Korea could provide an excellent venue for holding the Accelerator & Beam Physics Schools, as it has been doing in various other areas of Physics [49]. This will take care of the participants from the region, and the wide-range of topics (particularly, the beam theory), by bringing together physicists and accelerator personnel together.

We note that ACFA has only thirteen members (including Australia), and ICFA has far fewer number of members from Asia. Optics is intimately tied with the field of synchrotron radiation. The International Commission of Optics (ICO) has only ten territorial members from Asia. Of these ten, seven are ACFA members and six possess synchrotrons. Another related organization is the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). It has individual members from 11 Asian countries. Of these 7 are ACFA countries and 4 have synchrotrons.

In the context of international cooperation based on accelerator sciences the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, provides the prime example. CERN, the world’s largest particle accelerator laboratory was founded in 1954. It was Europe’s first major joint venture. Starting with twelve signatories, the membership has grown to twenty Member States. Several countries participate in other ways. The 6,500 scientists, half the world’s particle physicists, come to CERN for their research, representing 500 institutions from over 80 countries.

CERN is one of the oldest, but by no means the only cooperative facility. Another example from the field of accelerators is the 6.0 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) located in Grenoble, France. Conceived in 1975 and supported by 17 participating countries. Built on-time and on-budget and now producing good scientific results, the ESRF is another example of successful cooperation in Europe [56]. ESRF is one of the three most powerful hard X-ray facilities (the other two are: the 8.0 GeV SPring-8 in Japan and the 7.0 GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne in the US). The annual ESRF budget is US$60M. The price of construction of ESRF was about US$550M. ESRF has forty beam lines. The 3,000 scientists that use the facility each year carry out basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, materials and life sciences. Its construction began in 1988 and the first fifteen beam lines were opened in 1994. ESRF has a core membership of 12 European countries. Each is a corporate member of ESRF and pays a percentage of construction and the operating costs of the facilities.

There are also several Europe-wide organizations encouraging cooperation in science. One is the European Physical Society (EPS) which was created in 1968. It actively promotes physics and physicists in Europe and represents over 80,000 members through its 38 national member societies. EPS publishes several physics journals. Another is the European Science Foundation (ESF) which is committed to promoting high quality science at a European level [57]. ESF is the European association of national organizations responsible for the support of scientific research. Established in 1974, the ESF currently has 70 Member Organizations (research councils, academies, and other national scientific institutions) from 27 countries. ESF brings European scientists together to work on topics of common concern, to facilitate cooperation in the use of large research facilities, and to discover and define new projects that will benefit from a cooperative approach. The Foundation also works with its Member Organizations in the joint study of science policy issues of strategic importance in Europe. The ESF has Standing Committees for the Humanities and the Social Sciences enabling it to implement science policies with ease. Nevertheless, the general budget of the ESF for the year 2002 is only US$6M.

The last example is the European Space Agency (ESA) which provides a vision of Europe’s future in space, and of the benefits for people on the ground that satellites can supply: smarter personal telecommunications, better weather forecasts, global environmental studies, deep earth mineral explorations, and strategic defense. It also develops the strategies needed to fulfill the vision, through collaborative projects in space science and technology [58]. ESA has 15 Member States and headquarters in Paris. The annual ESA budget is about US$3B.

About 80 % of the world’s population lives in the Third World, many in Asia. Fewer than half the countries in Asia are meeting recognized expenditure norms on education and are far below the international norms for R&D [59,60] (expenditures for defense oriented research is in addition to this). The related statistics for the ACFA and CERN Member Countries are in Table-B and Table-C respectively.

After an introduction to synchrotrons, we have described the status of synchrotron radiation facilities in nine Asian countries and also mentioned some of the other accelerator programs in these countries. We have followed the developments leading to the relocated synchrotrons, which are enhancing international collaborations in the regions of South-East Asia and the Middle East respectively.

The existing accelerator forums are described along with their activities. Need and importance of new forums are highlighted. We have further emphasized the need for closer international cooperation among the Asian countries, and cited examples of cooperation and collaborations among European countries.

6.1    Is an Asian Accelerator Laboratory Feasible?

Large laboratory projects not only lead to a better understanding of nature, but also pave the path for many technological and commercial spin-offs. As one famous example, in the 1980’s there was a demand to develop some means which would enable the instantaneous sharing of information between the thousands of physicists working in different institutions all over the world for large scale high-energy physics collaborations. This eventually resulted in the World Wide Web.

Accelerator-based sciences have made significant progress in the last few decades in Asia. Since this region is the home to the largest number of developing countries we wonder if accelerator-based science might provide a vehicle for more intensive international collaboration. One idea for such a program would be an Asian Accelerator Laboratory (AAL) modeled after CERN, which was created in 1954. Asia of today certainly has a distinct advantages compared to Europe of 1954. Other factors include advances in accelerator sciences, and the successful examples of CERN and other large-scale joint initiatives such as ESRF, ESA. ECFA, CAS, and EPAC. Asia already has well-established institutions -- ACFA, APAC and the AAS.

The feasibility of a large-scale project such as the AAL can be analyzed in the following steps:

6.1.1 Technological Feasibility

The AAL would initially have one or more synchrotrons. This is technically possible as several countries in Asia have the experience and the expertise of making and running such facilities. The AAL may also have projects such as the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and the spallation neutron source (SNS) which are based exclusively on proven pieces of technology. More ambitious programs involving a very large machine (such as the next large hadron colliders) or designs based on untested technologies are probably not appropriate for AAL.

6.1.2 Financial Viability:

The cost of constructing a facility similar to say, the 6.0 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is US$550M with annual running costs of about US$60M (figure for the year 2002). The total construction cost of the 7.0 GeV third-generation Advanced Photon Source (APS), at Argonne in the US is US$467M. The combined total GNP of the twenty CERN Member States is about US$9,000B, with net R&D of about US$190B. The corresponding figures for the thirteen ACFA Member Countries are US$7,000B and US$145B respectively. The CERN member states are spending on an average over 2% of their GNP towards R&D. The average percentage for ACFA member countries (excluding Japan), is only 0.98%. This aspect of the expenditure on R&D is also presented in Tables B and C. The estimated US$1B required for the AAL could come by increasing R&D expenditures from US$145B to US$146B. This is roughly equivalent to increasing the percentage from 0.98 to 1.01 of GNP to R&D. If we include Japan, the percentages will be less. In these figures we have excluded Japan as it contributes more than half the total GNP of the ACFA Member Countries and spends about 2.8% for R&D. The primary funding for the AAL should preferably come from those countries which are not yet meeting the norms of the GNP formula (assuming they can afford this). We have focused on the ACFA countries for convenience and to demonstrate the financial feasibility.

A more ambitious facility such as the SPring-8 (US$1B) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (US$2B) could also be explored. The costs of construction would be distributed over several years of planning & construction, and shared by the participating countries via the GNP rule (pay in proportion to a country’s GNP) or any mutually convenient arrangement. CERN funding is based on the GNP rule where as the ESRF is not. The required time for the conceptual study & planning is several years, before the actual ground-breaking. This provides enough time to the funding governments to reorient their expenditures, to enable the incremental funding of the proposed AAL.

6.1.3 Political Will

Naturally, this is the most challenging aspect. Implementing an AAL is more a question of political will on part of the participating countries (their governments, and their science policy makers in particular). The scientific communities could push such a proposal via both traditional means and the Forums suggested earlier.

The SESAME project is envisaged to be a mini-CERN in the Middle East [42,43]. The Siam light source is intended to serve scientists throughout Southeast Asia [29]. Larger accelerator projects can no longer be realized by single countries. ESRF; CERN projects such as the LHC (expected to be completed by 2006) and the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in the US in 1993, are examples that should be examined closely by Asian countries in their own perspective if they choose to work towards an AAL.

A facility such as an AAL could provide an opportunity for collaboration and cooperation between scientists and their institutions in countries spread across Asia [61,62]. Working together on the many common problems that the Asian countries face, scientists could promote greater harmony, facilitating a purposeful attack on the formidable development issues faced by some Asian countries. An AAL could be a precursor of several such facilities in Asia, setting examples for other regions such as Africa.


Appendix-A
Other Upcoming Synchrotrons

There are several countries which are now joining the world synchrotron map. Since this does not happen often we have listed them in this appendix.

Australia:
Towards the end of 2001 the Victorian Government announced that it is going to fund the construction of an Australian synchrotron at the Monash University Campus in Clayton, Victoria. This is the 3.0  GeV , BOOMERANG [63] synchrotron facility, under the Australian Synchrotron Research Programme (ASRP) [64,65].


Canada:
The 2.9 GeV Canadian Light Source (CLS) is one of the largest scientific projects in Canada. Its construction started in July 1999 and cost about 175 million US$. It is scheduled to be commissioned in 2003, with six beam lines [66].


Spain:
A plan to build a state-of-art synchrotron light source outside the Spanish capital Barcelona was formally approved this March. The proposal for the Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LLS) has been around for several years. The LLS will start as a 2.5 GeV machine, with the option to upgrade to 3.0 GeV. It is presently anticipated to cost about US $ 105 million and the projected running costs are about $10 million. The facility is scheduled to come online in 2008 [67].


The upcoming synchrotron facilities will be able to bridge the wide gap in several of the under-represented regions of the World Synchrotron Map [5].


TABLE-A: Storage Ring Synchrotron Radiation Sources [4, 5, 39]

LOCATION

RING (INSTITUTION)

ENERGY

(GeV)

NOTES

ARMENIA

Yerevan

CANDLE

3.2

Design/Dedicated

CHINA

Beijing

Hefei

Shanghai

BSRF (Beijing Syn. Rad. Factory)

BLS (Inst. High Energy Physics)

NSRL (Univ. Sci. Tech. of China)

SSRF (Inst. of Nucl. Research)

1.5-2.8

2.2-2.5

0.8

3.5

Partly Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

INDIA

Indore

INDUS-I (Centre of Adv. Tech)

INDUS-II (Centre of Adv. Tech)

0.45

2.5

Dedicated

Dedicated*

JAPAN

Hiroshima

Ichihara

Kashiwa

Kusatsu

Kyoto

Nishi Harima

Okasaki

Osaka

Sendai

Tsukuba

HISOR (Hiroshima University)

Nano-hana (Japan SOR Inc.)

VSX (Univ. of Tokyo-ISSP)

AURORA (Ritsumaiken Univ.)

KSR (Kyoto University)

SPring-8 (Sci. Tech Agency)

SUBARU (Himeji Inst. Tech.)

NIJI-III (Sumitomo Electric)

UVSOR (Inst. Mol. Sci.)

UVSOR-II (Inst. Mol. Sci)

Kansai SR

TLS (Tohoku University)

TERAS (Electro. Tech. Lab.)

NIJI-II (Electro. Tech. Lab.)

NIJI-IV (Electro. Tech. Lab.)

Photon Factory (KEK)

Accumulator Ring (KEK)

0.7

1.5-2.0

2.0-2.5

0.6

0.3

8.0

1.0-1.5

0.6

0.75

1.0

2.0

1.5

0.8

0.6

0.5

2.5

6.5

Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Dedicated

Dedicated*

Dedicated

Dedicated*

Dedicated

Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Design/Dedicated

Dedicated

Dedicated

Dedicated/FEL Use

Dedicated

Planned Rebuilding

JORDAN

Al-Salt

SESAME

2.0

Design/Dedicated

KOREA

Pohang

Seoul

Pohang Light Source

CESS (Seoul National University)

2.0

0.1

Dedicated

Dedicated*

SINGAPORE

Singapore

HELIOS-II (Nat. Uni. of Singapore)

0.7

Dedicated

TAIWAN

Hsinchu

SRRC (Syn. Rad. Research Centre)

1.3-1.5

Dedicated

THAILAND

Nakhon

Ratchasima

SIAM (Suranaree Univ. of Tech.)

1.0-1.3

Dedicated

* in construction as of June 2002


TABLE-B: Statistical Data for ACFA Member Countries

Country

Population

(thousands) 2001

GNP per captia (US $)

1998

Scientists/

Engineers

In R & D (per million inhabitants)

Expenditure

On R & D

(million US $)

Expenditure

On R&D (% of GNP)

Australia

19,339

20,640

6,192

1.60

Bangladesh

140,369

350

52 (1995)

13

0.03

China

1,284,974

750

454 (1996)

5,634

0.61

India

1,025,096

440

149 (1994)

3,120

0.73

Indonesia

204,840

640

182 (1988)

248

0.19

Japan

127,334

32,550

4,909 (1996)

114,495

2.80

Korea

47,069

8,600

2,193 (1996)

11,246

2.82

Malaysia

22,633

3,670

93 (1996)

195

0.24

Pakistan

144,971

470

72 (1997)

566

0.92

Singapore

4,108

30,170

2,318 (1995)

1,079

1.13

Taiwan

22,500

12,330

1,028 (1997)

---

1.74

Thailand

63,584

2,160

103 (1996)

172

0.13

Vietnam

79,175

350

334 (1985)

---

---

Sources:

UNESCO Statistical Year Book (1999) [68].

World Bank Atlas (2001) [69].

¨---¨ indicates non-availability of data.


TABLE-C: Statistical Data for CERN Member Countries

Country

Population (thousand)

2001

GNP per Capita

(US $)

1998

Scientists/

Engineers

In R & D

(per million

inhabitants)

Expenditure

On R & D

(million US $)

Expenditure

On R & D

(% of GNP)

Austria

8,075

26,830

1,627 (1993)

3,250

1.50

Belgium

10,263

25,380

2,272 (1995)

162

1.60

Bulgaria

7,866

1,220

1,747 (1996)

58

0.57

Czech Republic

10,260

5,150

1,222 (1997)

636

1.20

Denmark

5,332

33,040

3,190 (1997)

3,416

1.95

Finland

5,178

24,280

2,799 (1995)

3,077

2.46

France

59,453

24,210

2,659 (1996)

34,144

2.33

Germany

82,008

26,570

2,831 (1995)

50,353

2.31

Greece

10,624

11,740

773 (1993)

580

0.47

Hungary

9,017

4,510

1,022 (1996)

311

0.68

Italy

57,503

20,090

1,318 (1997)

25,570

2.21

Netherlands

15,929

24,780

2,219 (1996)

8, 093

2.08

Norway

4, 488

34,310

3,664 (1995)

2, 645

1.74

Poland

38,577

3, 910

1,358 (1996)

1,165

0.77

Portugal

10,034

10,670

1,182 (1995)

660

0.62

Slovak Republic

5,404

3, 700

1,814 (1995)

209

1.05

Spain

39,920

14,100

1,305 (1996)

4,941

0.89

Sweden

8,833

25,580

3,826 (1995)

20,876

3.76

Switzerland

7, 170

39,980

3,006 (1996)

7,387

2.60

United Kingdom

59,541

21,410

2,448 (1996)

24,654

1.95

Sources:

UNESCO Statistical Year Book (1999) [68].

World Bank Atlas (2001) [69].

¨---¨ indicates non-availability of data.

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END OF REPORT ATIP02.034r