Synchrotron Radiation (in Asia)
ATIP/Asia,Japan, China, India, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan,
Copyright © 2009 by the Asian
Technology Information Program (ATIP).
This material may not be
published, modified, or otherwise redistributed in whole or in part, in any
form, without prior approval by ATIP, which reserves all rights.
Devices based on electron beams for producing radiation include synchrotrons,
free-electron lasers, and (proposed) energy-recovery linear accelerators. These
facilities are described in this report along with the characteristics of the
radiation each produces. The status of synchrotron facilities in nine Asian
countries is described; other synchrotrons under development are mentioned
briefly. We discuss the existing forums and the need for creating new forums
and international collaborations in Asia. For comparison, we cite a few
examples of European Institutions and their large-scale science projects which
brought together numerous scientists.
KEYWORDS: Government Policy on Science and Technology,
Nanotechnology. Physics, Regional Overview of Science and Technology,
COUNTRY: Japan, China, India, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan,
DATE : 21 Aug 2002
1.2 Free-Electron Lasers
1.3 Energy-Recovery Linear Accelerators
2. Synchrotron Radiation Facilities in
2.1.1 Japanese Beam Physics Club
2.2.1 Particle Accelerator Society of China
2.3.1 Accelerator Meetings in India
3. Relocated Synchrotrons
3.2 Middle East
4. Accelerator Forums
5. International Cooperation
6. Conclusions & Outlook
6.1 Is an Asian Accelerator Laboratory Feasible?
6.1.1 Technological Feasibility
6.1.2 Financial Viability:
6.1.3 Political Will
Electron beams have been
used for a long time to generate radiation. When electrons whirl around in
curved paths vigorously enough, they give off energy in the form of peculiarly pure X-rays. The faster they whirl,
more the energy they give off while slowing down in the process. This is
something of an irritant and unwanted by high energy particle physicists, but a
boon for many others interested in a variety of applications, including
chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine, and others. This interesting
physical phenomenon of emission of light (with very special properties) by
whirling electrons, now known by the very familiar name synchrotron radiation had its theoretical beginnings even before
the discovery of X-rays in the nineteenth century [1,2,3,4]. These
theoretical studies had to wait for over half a century until the development
of charged-particle accelerator technology for direct observation and
experimental verification. This was experimentally observed for the first time,
on 24 April 1947, in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the
70 MeV electron synchrotron, built at the General Electric Company in Schenectady, New York and hence the
name synchrotron radiation. The radiated power is
related to the fourth-power of the reciprocal of the rest-mass. So, a proton
radiates 1836^4 times less intensity than the electron under the same
conditions. This restricts the choice of the charged-particles to electrons. An
electron Volt (eV) is a unit of energy (the energy an electron or proton gains
when it moves through a potential difference of 1 Volt) and this unit is
commonly used when referring to the energy of X-rays.
Very high energies are
common in the world of synchrotrons. The observation of synchrotron radiation
generated a renewed interest in synchrotron theory. Synchrotron radiation was
an irritant in early electron synchrotrons and storage rings. But it was soon
realized that it was a very valuable product in itself for research
applications requiring intense and bright sources of light over a wide range of
wavelengths. Synchrotron radiation has numerous advantages over the traditional
X-ray sources and lasers. Because of the utility of its properties, the 1970’s
saw the creation of dedicated
synchrotron radiation light sources. The popularity of these sources continues
to grow. Many dedicated facilities have been operating with increasing
brightness and certain other characteristics which we discuss in the following
sections. Synchrotrons are not the only sources of radiation. With continuous
advances in the charged-particle accelerator technology it has been possible to
build different types of radiation sources with substantial control of the
characteristics of the emitted radiation: coherence, polarization, wavelength,
brilliance, flux, etc., each of which satisfies a particular experimental need.
Radiation from synchrotrons and the other sources are extremely useful in a
broad-spectrum of research programs including: structural molecular biology,
molecular environmental science, surface and interface science,
micro-electromechanical devices, X-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis,
materials characterization, and medical applications.
Here we shall briefly
review the salient features of different Asian radiation facilities along with
the characteristics of the emitted radiation.
There are nine countries
in Asia which have synchrotrons. Seven are described below. The remaining two
countries have the distinction of having synchrotrons given to them as gifts
via relocation from other sites. This section briefly mentions the synchrotron
relocated from The Netherlands to Russia.
We also discuss Accelerator Forums Accelerator-based Science
and International Cooperation. We cite examples from the European Union
which has several examples of international scientific facilities. We conclude
with a thought about the possibility of an Asian Accelerator Laboratory.
countries possess synchrotrons. In Appendix-A we briefly describe recent and
new members of this club. The twenty-nine Asian synchrotrons are summarized in
Table-A, after the Appendix.
programs necessarily require an assured and generous government funding. So, we
have included some statistical data in Table-B and Table-C for selected Asian
and European countries respectively. Lastly, we include a bibliography that should be useful for
Among the energy sources,
synchrotrons are the oldest and most widely used. The early part of synchrotron
research was in the parasitic mode.
That is, the exploitation of the unwanted
radiation produced by the unavoidable
energy loss from circular accelerators built for particle physics experiments.
This gradually grew into the construction of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources in the 1970’s.
Synchrotron radiation is
extremely intense over a broad range of wavelengths from the infrared through
the visible and the ultraviolet and into the vacuum ultraviolet and soft and
hard X-rays parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This high intensity over a
very broad spectrum range and certain other properties (including, collimation,
polarization, pulsed-time structure, partial coherence, high-vacuum
environment, etc) make synchrotron radiation a very powerful tool for a variety
of applications in basic and applied research and technology. It is
particularly important in those parts of the electromagnetic spectrum where
laser sources are (presently) not available, such as the vacuum ultraviolet,
soft and hard X-rays, parts of the infrared, etc,. The applications of
synchrotron light span a wide range of domains in fundamental science
(chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine, etc.,) applied research
(materials science, medical imaging, pharmaceutical R&D, advanced radiology, etc) and industrial technology
(micro-fabrication, micro-analysis, photo-chemistry, etc).
A synchrotron radiation
facility is based on the science & technology of charged-particle
accelerators. Electrons being the lightest charged-particles radiate the most.
Bunches of electrons are made to circulate (at speeds close to that of light,
299 thousand km/sec.) for several hours inside a large ring-shaped tube under
very high vacuum. These rings have several beam lines with experimental
stations and serve several sets of users simultaneously. Contrary to some
expectations there are not enough synchrotron facilities to meet the demands of
the user community. This is due to the high costs (several hundred million US$)
and the requirement of very high technological expertise. In the world of
synchrotrons, energy is the name of the game; a figure of one GeV is considered
a threshold. Based on this threshold, there are about fifty storage rings in
operation as synchrotron radiation sources in twenty-three countries. About a
dozen are under construction and another dozen are being planned . This
has been driven by a very large, diverse, and growing user community which is
estimated to be over ten-thousand. These twenty-three countries are: Armenia,
Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, England, France, Germany, India,
Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine and the US. The continents of South America and
Australia have only one facility each; and there are none in Africa. More than
half the existing synchrotrons are in Asia (twenty-nine) in nine countries. Of
these seventeen are in Japan. Even if this threshold energy criterion is
relaxed by a factor of three, the list of countries would not change
The development of
synchrotron radiation sources can be summarized using the notion of generations. First generation sources were those in the parasitic mode and
were consequently optimized for the requirements of particle collisions. Second generation sources were characterized
for high flux production of X-rays. In these sources the chief sources of
radiation were the dipole magnets which were used to bend the stored electron
beam into a closed loop. All synchrotrons and storage rings have to use bending
magnets to keep the electrons in a circular path. Thus the bending magnets
naturally serve as the sources of synchrotron radiation. This has some
limitations and to enhance certain characteristics of the radiation insertion
devices were incorporated in the straight sections of the rings and this
improves the quality of the radiation sources. Third generation sources were characterized by high brilliance
achieved by incorporating the insertion devices in the extended
straight-sections of the ring. Among the insertion devices, undulators or wigglers are most widely used. These consist of a structure
which has a magnetic field varying periodically in polarity along the device;
this can be achieved by an array of magnets. Such an arrangement is equivalent
to a series of dipoles. This makes a many-fold increase in the output flux of
the emitted radiation. The current generation (fourth generation) sources are based on Free-Electron Lasers
(FELs) to produce ultra-bright
hard X-ray pulses (wavelength less than 1.0 Å). However, it is to be noted that
even though FELs are considered as fourth generation sources, they differ
significantly from the other three generations. Nor do they replace the
synchrotron radiation sources, and each is suited for different uses.
A free-electron laser (FEL) can generate tunable, coherent,
high power radiation over the entire electromagnetic spectrum and fill the
spectral voids left by laser sources. Existing FELs have been operating from
millimeter to about 100 nanometers with average power up to kilowatts and peak
power up to gigawatts. A FEL can have the optical properties characteristics of
conventional lasers: high spatial coherence and near diffraction limited beams.
At the operational level an FEL differs significantly from a conventional laser
in using a relativistic electron beam as its lasing medium, as opposed to bound
atomic or molecular states -- hence the term free-electron laser. The FEL uses
a beam of relativistic electrons (usually obtained from a linear accelerator)
passing through an undulator or wiggler to amplify the laser light beam
propagating along the axis of the light beam. Lasing occurs because the wiggler
and the radiation combine to produce a beat wave. The discrete energy levels in
a bound atomic/molecular state put a limit on the laser output, whereas in a
FEL the electron energy transition occurs in a continuum. Apart from the high
power output the FEL can produce a variety of pulse formats.
Tunable, hard X-ray
(wavelength less than 1.0 Å) FELs have been proposed as fourth generation light sources. The major advantage of FELs is
that they produce coherent light many orders of magnitude brighter than the
incoherent light produced in synchrotrons, which were used for the previous
three generations. Short-wavelength FELs are primarily directed toward X-ray
research applications at wavelengths down to one angstrom. Applications in the
X-ray region will have an impact similar to that which followed the invention
of the laser at the visible wavelengths. There are proposals for the
development of X-ray FELs. When these proposed facilities begin operating X-ray
FELs may also be employed to study physics issues of fundamental
In a synchrotron source
the energy lost by the electrons while emitting radiation is replenished by the
microcavities in the ring. Thus the replenished electrons are recycled. In a
FEL the electron beam supplied by the linear accelerator is dumped after a
passage through the undulator. This requires a continuously operating high
current linac (linear accelerator) which is prohibitively expensive to operate.
So, instead of recycling the electrons as in synchrotrons or dumping as in the
case of FEL, there is a proposal to recycle the energy itself. This is known as
the energy-recovery linear accelerator
(ERL). The latest step in the
field of charged-particle accelerator-based X-ray radiation sources and still a
Proposal, is to build an X-ray light source based on the ERL.
Outline of the
ERL-Proposal: An electron bunch
from an electron gun is pre-accelerated to about 10 MeV and then injected into
a superconducting linac. The superconducting linac is used to minimize the
losses from the linac walls. The bunches, after being accelerated to about
several GeV, are directed (via
bending magnets) into a series of undulators, thus producing high flux
radiation. The used electron bunch is then directed (again via bending magnets)
back into the superconducting linac 180 degreesout of phase. The dipoles (used for
directing the bunch) and the insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) in the
closed loop of the beam serve as excellent radiation sources. This is the
outline of the principle on which the ERL-Proposal is based. This idea was suggested
in 1965 by Maury Tigner [7,8]
As the name may suggest
it is not the energy recovery alone that is the chief attraction. The
parameters of the electron beam in an ERL are very different from those of
synchrotron rings. The requirements of stable beam orbits for several hours
puts severe restrictions on the achievable beam parameters. In a storage beam
one has to be concerned with the perturbations which continue to influence the
beam orbit even after many turns around the ring. Other issues include beam
losses. Neither are concerns in an ERL. The beam parameters in an ERL can be
varied from one pass to the other. This flexibility of the ERL eases the
restrictions on the parameters of the undulators/wigglers.
The ERL-Project is
completely based on the proven technology of the linac, undulators, wigglers, etc., and is expected to be
completely viable. ERL-produced radiation is expected to have very high flux,
tunable brilliance, picosecond bunch lengths, and flexible pulse structure. It
will provide more highly coherent X-ray beams than storage rings and such a
source will have numerous new applications.
From the above
description, the diverse utility and importance of synchrotrons should be
evident. At the same time there are few countries which can boast of having
this novel light source. Having the most powerful synchrotrons in the world is
technically and financially very challenging. The 8.0 GeV, SPring-8 synchrotron is the largest
synchrotron radiation source in the world and was completed in 1997 in Japan.
Japan, along with the United States and the European Union lead in
accelerator-based science research. Japan is also home to the largest number of
synchrotrons. This is definitely related to Japan’s industrial success. The
SPring-8 belongs to the category of hard X-ray machines, along with the 7.0
GeV, Advanced Photon Source (APS)
in Argonne, USA and the 6.0 GeV, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Owing to
their extremely high energy, these synchrotrons have their specific problems,
and have forced the development of new techniques and new devices in the field
of optics and detectors to ensure the required high stability of the electron
beam. In view of the very unique challenges arising due to the very high energy,
the three most powerful synchrotron laboratories have signed a Framework of Agreement for Collaboration .
With all the technical
challenges it is to be noted that storage rings remain very flexible devices. By reusing most of
the major components their performance can be upgraded at an incremental cost
that is small as compared with the cost of construction of a new synchrotron.
In recent years this flexibility is being innovatively exploited to relocate
the very generously donated synchrotrons  to those locations which are
under-represented in the World
Synchrotron Map .
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END OF REPORT ATIP02.034a
ATIP02.034 (continued): Synchrotron
Radiation (in Asia)
Copyright © 2009 by the Asian Technology
Information Program (ATIP).
This material may not be
published, modified, or otherwise redistributed in whole or in part, in any
form, without prior approval by ATIP, which reserves all rights.
Twenty-three countries now
possess synchrotrons; nine are in Asia, where twenty-nine synchrotrons are
Japan’s 8.0 GeV, SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron
radiation source in the world, joining 16 other synchrotrons in that country.
Of the two electron-positron
facilities in Asia (there are seven in the world), one is in Japan. The second
is the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC).
India has done accelerator
projects since 1940 and has the expertise and the experience of indigenously
building two synchrotrons. It is one of the few countries doing research with
Singapore has a purchased
synchrotron. In Asia Thailand and Jordan have synchrotrons that were donated.
A donated synchrotron is also in Russia.
Accelerator facilities are
expensive. The most successful sites emphasize a high degree of international
collaboration; CERN in Geneva being the best example. Such a joint facility in
Asia would be an important step but is probably limited by political rather
than technical or financial issues.
IMPACT & ASSESSMENT
A multi-hundred million
US dollar synchrotron is an important resource for a nation or a region. The
applications of synchrotron light span a wide range of domains in fundamental
science (chemistry, physics, biology, molecular medicine) applied research
(materials science, medical imaging, pharmaceutical R&D, advanced radiology, etc) and industrial technology
(micro-fabrication, micro-analysis, photo-chemistry, etc). It represents a
measure of the technical capability and will of a country as well as a source
of science and technology development. Asia has a commitment in this area,
particularly Japan, but also countries such as China, India and Thailand. The
synchrotron donated to Jordan may be important, not only in science/technology
development but also in increasing regional cohesiveness.
is not appropriate to describe the synchrotrons in a particular country
independently of other facilities. A synchrotron is not the first machine
constructed and there are always smaller machines preceding its construction.
Also, there are always some accompanying accelerator programs in parallel or in
tandem. So, in this section we shall describe the status of the synchrotron
radiation facilities along with the other and most relevant accelerator
programs in seven of the nine countries in Asia which possess synchrotrons.
Thailand and Jordan are covered in the next section devoted to relocated
synchrotrons. This description by no means is complete. Good sources for more
technical descriptions of these facilities are their websites given in the
links at the World Synchrotron Map
website . We have used some information available in the proceedings of
the Asian Accelerator Conferences [11,12] and in the article by
Namkung . Other material was obtained from publications or/and
Japan, with the US and EU
is one of the leading countries in accelerator-based science research. The 8.0
GeV, SPring synchrotron is the
largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. It was completed in 1997 in
Hyogo prefecture. Japan is also home to the largest number of synchrotrons. At
present seven electron-positron colliders are operational in the world, one is
in Japan (the only other one in Asia is the BEPC in China). All this is
definitely related to Japan’s industrial success. The diverse accelerator
programs across Japan warrant a separate report. In this section we shall just
briefly outline some of the most relevant aspects of the Japanese accelerator
in Japan is as old as the subject itself. The first Cockroft-Walton accelerator
in Japan was completed by Prof. Arakatsu at Tohoku University in 1934. In the
same year another Cockroft-Walton accelerator was completed by Prof. Kikuchi at
Osaka University. In 1937 Dr. Nishina completed the construction of a small
cyclotron at RIKEN. He also
began the construction of a large cyclotron in collaboration with Prof. Lawrence
from the US. This remarkably early development of accelerator research in Japan
was interrupted by World War-II. All the cyclotrons were destroyed and the
programs were frozen along with the country’s nuclear physics programs.
Accelerator programs were resurrected in 1951 with the reconstruction of
cyclotrons at RIKEN, Osaka and Kyoto Universities. Japan has been increasing
its activities since then. At present there are more than a thousand
accelerators in Japan. About two-thirds are electron linacs used in hospitals
for radiation therapy. The others are at universities while the larger ones are
concentrated in major laboratories.
Accelerator Organization (KEK)
was established in 1972. KEK is located in Tsukuba Science City (now housing
forty-six research institutions), which was created in 1963 with the approval
of the Cabinet . The numerous facilities at KEK include a 12 GeV
proton synchrotron for nuclear physics, materials science and medical research;
the electron-positron collider (KEK-B)
for high energy physics; and electron synchrotrons to be described below. KEK
is one of the major accelerator facilities in the world for high-energy physics
KEK also houses 2.5 GeV
and 6.5 GeV synchrotrons. The other synchrotrons of Japan are listed in
Table-A. Notable among these is the 8.0 GeV Super Photon Ring (SPring-8)
synchrotron radiation facility which is located in Harima Science City in Hyogo
Prefecture. The construction of SPring-8 began in 1991 and it was officially
dedicated in 1997, one year ahead of schedule. It is the largest synchrotron in
the world and belongs to the category of hard X-ray machines. Its construction
cost US$1B and the annual operating costs are about US$10M.
Apart from the
synchrotron radiation sources Japan has an active program in Free Electron
Lasers (FEL). The first lasing
of FEL in Japan was achieved in 1991. Dedicated FEL facilities based on linacs
have been constructed. These provide energetic photon beams with wavelengths as
short as 27.8 Å. The numerous other programs in Japan are beyond the scope of
Accelerator & beam
physics is generally not taught in most universities. Furthermore, accelerator
physicists are scattered among laboratories (focusing on the day-to-day running
of the machines) and various universities. This is true in Japan as elsewhere.
So, the Japanese Beam Physics Club (JBPC)
was created in the early 1990’s. It brings accelerator physicists together, and
promotes beam physics studies and academic collaborations between laboratories
and universities . The first
Beam Physics Meeting was held at
the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, in March 1996. JBPC
regularly holds its Annual Meetings,
covering a broad range of topics through talks
and posters .
The number of JBPC
members is steadily growing. The Division
of Beam Physics was tentatively organized in the Japanese Physical
Society early in 2002. It will be firmly established in a few years. This is a
very significant step as before this, the American Physical Society alone had a Beam Physics Division.
China has an excellent
and long accelerator program. In 1956, Prof. Xie Jialin started China’s
electron linac research. The first was a 30 MeV linac, which was completed in
1964. In the 1970’s several linacs were made, mostly for medical applications.
China has four synchrotron facilities, one of each generation. In the 1980’s
the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) was constructed. It is part of the Beijing Electron and
Positron Collider (BEPC) which is described below. BSRF
operates in the parasitic mode for about two months a year. BEPC also has a
dedicated synchrotron source. The construction of the 800 MeV Hefei Synchrotron
Radiation Facility (HESYRL) was
started in 1984 and has been serving users since 1993. It is located at the
National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).
China has the experience
of building first, second and third-generation synchrotrons. In order to
satisfy the ever increasing demands of users, a fourth-generation machine is
now under active planning at an industrial park in the Pudong area of Shanghai.
This is the 3.5 GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).
Of the two
electron-positron facilities in Asia (there are seven in the world), the one in
Japan has been described. The second is the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider
(BEPC). Its construction was
started in 1984 and the first collision was realized in 1988. This marked
China’s entry into experimental high energy physics in a major way. It is the
highest luminosity collider in the Tau-Charm
Energy Regime. BEPC is located at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). There are now serious proposals
to upgrade BEPC to BEPC-II. Encouraged by the rich physics at the Tau-Charm
energy regime, there are active proposals to construct an advanced dedicated
facility, the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory (BTCF).
The first Asian Accelerator School (AAS) was organized from 22 November –
04 December 1999 in Beijing, China. The chief theme of the school was Physics and Engineering of High Performance
Electron Storage Rings and Application of Superconducting Technology .
The Particle Accelerator
Society of China (PASC) was
established in 1980 [18,19]. It should be noted that the Division of Physics of Beams in the American Physical Society was
established only in 1985. The Inter-Divisional
Group on Accelerators (IGA) in the European Physical Society (EPS) was established in 1988. EPS has eleven divisions and the
elevation of the IGA’s status to a complete division is still being
awaited . PASC has a dedicated Beam
PASC very regularly holds
Members’ Representative Meetings, Council Meetings, and also organizes academic
meetings on a variety of themes ranging from medical accelerators to
free-electron lasers. Its activities also include Schools and Symposia. PASC is
playing an active role in the development of accelerators and is in close
collaboration with ICFA and ACFA, organizations that are described in the
section on Forums.
The accelerator programs
in India also have a long history, beginning in 1940 when Prof. Meghnad Saha
developed a 37 inch cyclotron
at the Calcutta based Institute of Nuclear Physics, now called the Saha
Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP).
In 1950, a 1.0 MV cyclotron was commissioned at the Tata Institute of
Fundamental Research (TIFR) in
Mumbai (previously named Bombay). In 1960, a 5.5 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator
was installed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Mumbai. In the same decade, a 2.5 MV Van-de-Graaff
accelerator was installed at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur and a 5.0 MV proton
cyclotron was installed at Panjab University, Chandigarh. In 1978, an
indigenously designed and built 224 cm
diameter Variable Energy Cyclotron was made operational at the Variable Energy
Cyclotron Centre (VECC) in
Calcutta. There are several Pelletron facilities which have been operating for
over a decade. These include: the 6.0 MV Pelletron at the Institute of Physics
(IOP) in Bhubaneshwar and the
14.0 MV Pelletron at TIFR. The Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) in New Delhi has a very energetic 15 MV Pelletron, which can
accelerate very heavy ions to high energies . Very recently a beam of
the radioactive isotope beryllium-7 was produced at the NSC. This marks India’s
entry into an elite group of nations which are doing research with
radioactive-ion beams .
India has the expertise
and the experience of indigenously building two synchrotrons, both at the
Centre of Advanced Technology (CAT)
in Indore. Indus-I, the first
synchrotron source in India was commissioned in July 1999 and is in regular
operation. It is a 450 MeV storage ring with a 20 MeV microtron as its injector.
The beam energy of this synchrotron can be increased up to 700 MeV.
The second synchrotron is
the Indus-II, whose proposed
energy has been increased from 2.0 GeV to 2.5 GeV. The installation and the
commissioning of the storage ring are expected to be completed by middle of
2003. Indus-II has provision for 22 beam lines. Six beam lines are expected to
be operational by 2005.
activities in India also include the construction of a 142 cm Superconducting
Cyclotron at VECC, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005. Planning is
now underway for the spallation
neutron source, which is designed to have a 100 MeV linac as an injector
and a 1.0 GeV proton synchrotron .
India is one of the very
few countries which regularly hold Accelerator and Beam Physics Meetings. For
several years the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) at Indore has been holding a series of Schools on the Physics of Beams every year in
December–January. This School is funded by the Department of Science and
Technology (DST), with the aim
of dissemination more widely in India, knowledge and interest in beam physics.
The School attracts several speakers from the premiere accelerator laboratories
around the world. The Schools have been very well-structured with tutorials and
a few laboratory experiments. The participants of the School are further
attracted to the Summer Research
Program conducted at CAT (see the very detailed School Reports in
Ref. ). For over a decade the IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre has been
holding the tri-annual National
Seminars on Physics and Technology of Particle Accelerators and their
Applications. This series of National Seminars known by the acronym PATPAA provide a forum where
accelerator physicists and technical personnel can meet and exchange their
ideas and new developments. These PATPAA conferences, conducted once in three
years, attract a large participation from across the entire nation and some
from abroad with enthusiasm and interest .
The above Schools are
extremely significant since, the Accelerator
& Beam Physics and associated technologies are not yet part of the regular university
curriculum in most parts of the world. This curious scenario is being faced by
the interdisciplinary field of Accelerator & Beam Physics, all over the
Armenia is the most
recent country to join the world
synchrotron map as it is actively planning to build the 3.2 GeV, CANDLE (Center for the Advancement of
Natural Discoveries using Light Emission). It is envisaged as an international
regional facility leading to collaborations with neighboring countries and
beyond. Armenia was hoping to receive the 800 MeV BESSY-I, which Germany gave
to Jordan. In that selection Armenia was the first runner-up. Armenia is one of
the eleven members of the international synchrotron facility in the Middle
East, which shall be described below.
Americans of Armenian
decent have been very actively campaigning for the synchrotron facility in
Armenia. The US Department of Energy has awarded half a million US$ for the
preparation of a Technical Design Analysis report for the proposed construction
of the 3.2 GeV synchrotron facility. CANDLE is to be located in Yerevan and is
projected to be operational in the year 2006. It is expected to have 50 beam
lines (a very large number) and is expected to serve a very diverse set of
users in the region .
In the early 1960’s there
were three accelerators in Korea: a 1.5 MV cyclotron at Seoul National
University (SNU), two Cockroft-Walton-type
accelerators, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Yonsei University. In the
late 1970’s Prof. Chung at SNU constructed a 1.5 MV Tandem Van de Graaff which
is still in use for materials research. There are several cyclotrons and
microtrons for medical treatment.
In 1988, Pohang
University of Science and Technology (PSTECH)
launched a project to construct a synchrotron. It was funded by the Korean
Government and the Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). The Pohang Light Source (PLS) is a 2.0 - 2.5 GeV , third-generation synchrotron radiation
source and has been serving users since 1995. Presently there are 14 beam lines
with plans to have 40 beam lines in operation by 2008.
With the rapid
industrialization in Korea, there is an ever increasing demand for electrical
power. Even the nuclear power production requires enhancement and innovation.
One possible option is the accelerator-based transmutation of the spent fuel.
There is the KAERI operated Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), using a 1.0 GeV proton linac
to drive a 1000 MW test reactor which can produce up to 400 MW of electrical
The 700 MeV Singapore
Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS)
is located on the campus of the National Singapore University. After a
construction period of four years, SSLS started operating in 2001. The current
programs include: lithography, nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface
science and infrared spectroscopy/microscopy. There are plans to increase the
number of beam lines and development of an X-ray FEL.
SSLS is bound to promote
international cooperation. The third
International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS-3) was held in Singapore from
21-24 January 2002. The third Overseas Chinese Physics Association (OCPA) International Accelerator
School, is scheduled to be held from 25 July to 3 August 2002 in
Taiwan has the unique
distinction of having the earliest accelerator history in Asia. In 1934 a Cockroft-Walton
accelerator was built in Taipei. With such an early start, accelerator
activities were in a flourishing state until World War-II at which point all
accelerator activities were frozen for about ten years, same as in the case of
Japan. Today, Taiwan has about twenty small accelerators for nuclear and
applied research, besides a 1.5 GeV synchrotron source to be described below.
The small accelerators include: three Cockroft-Walton accelerators; six ion
implantors; two Van de Graaff accelerators; two tandem electrostatic
accelerators; two cyclotrons and seven electron linacs (up to 30 MeV). These
machines are used in applied sectors including, radio-isotope production for
medical applications; materials science and in atomic physics and low-energy nuclear
The Taiwan Light Source (TLS) located at the Synchrotron
Radiation Research Centre (SRRC),
in the city of Hsinchu was commissioned in 1993. It is a third-generation 1.5
GeV light source. The research topics at SRRC include: surfaces and interfaces;
atomic and molecular sciences; materials science; instrumentation and
industrial applications. The monthly beam availability normally exceeds an
efficiency of over 90 %.
Synchrotrons are flexible
facilities. They can be upgraded by reutilizing their major components. This
flexibility has been very innovatively exploited in recent years when
synchrotrons are donated and reinstalled in new locations. This tradition of
synchrotron gifts was started by Japan and then followed by Germany, and
Netherlands. In this section we describe the three such relocated synchrotrons.
Japan donated a 1.0 GeV
synchrotron to Thailand in 1996  and the Asia-Pacific region thus
became the birthplace of the Era
of the Relocated Synchrotrons.
The Siam Photon Source is housed
in the specially created, National Synchrotron Research Centre (NSRC) on the campus of Suranaree
University of Technology in the city of Nakhon Ratchasima, 250 km north-east of
Bangkok. The Siam-Photon Source is Thailand’s first synchrotron facility and is
intended to serve scientists throughout Southeast Asia. The original
synchrotron light source, called SORTEC, was located in Tsukuba Science City,
near KEK, Japan’s High Energy
Accelerator Research Organization. Thailand’s Ministry of Science, Technology,
and Environment received the machine as a gift, and has been investing about
US$15M to move and upgrade it. This includes the doubling of its circumference
to 81m and tailoring the
machine to produce narrow bright beams of soft X-rays and ultraviolet
radiation. Scientists from KEK have helped in the redesign and are training
Thai scientists to operate their new facility. Professor Tokehiko Ishii, the
retired Director of the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the University of
Tokyo is the key figure in orchestrating the donation. He is also overseeing
the technical and scientific aspects of the transfer and upgrading of the
synchrotron. The plan is to use the Siam Photon Source for physics and
chemistry research, with some industrial research in semiconductors, medicine,
pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. The Siam Photon Source is scheduled to go
on-line in 2003 .
Jordan was the first
country from the Middle East to join the group of twenty-three countries
possessing a synchrotron light source [31,32]. This became possible as
Germany decided to give BESSY-I,
a 800 MeV synchrotron, fully functioning since 1982 in Berlin, to a site in the
Middle East. The facility is worth about US $60M. BESSY stands for Berliner
Synchrotronstrahlung . BESSY-I is to be replaced by the more
powerful BESSY-II, a 1900 MeV
synchrotron located in another part of Berlin. The German gift of BESSY-I is
viewed by many as an extension of their environmentally responsible attitude
toward reusing and recycling, to large-scale research facilities.
The idea of donating
BESSY-I came from Herman Winick of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, a member of the
Machine Advisory Committee of BESSY-II, and the fellow committee member
Gustav-Adolf Voss, a former director of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg,
Germany [34,35]. The Project is now known by the acronym SESAME (Synchrotron-light for
Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East)  (the term open sesame is from the Arabian Nights Entertainments, and
means: achieving what is normally
unattainable). The SESAME Project reached a major milestone in late 2000
with the selection of a site in Jordan . SESAME will be the upgraded
reincarnation of BESSY-I .
A controlled and
documented dismantling of BESSY-I was completed by a team of experts from
Yerevan, Armenia and Novosibirsk, Russia. The required funds for the
dismantling came from the SESAME Member Countries and UNESCO. On 7th June 2002
the ship Conti Harmoni, started its trip toward Al-Aqabe, Jordan,
carrying the entire BESSY-I. Once in Jordan BESSY will be upgraded and
reassembled in a new configuration, a 2.0 GeV third-generation high performance
light source . The upcoming joint synchrotron radiation facility, which
would be the first regional center for cooperation in basic research in the
Middle East will also serve as a seed for an International Center built around
the facility . SESAME will be located at a site in Allaan, about
thirty km from the Capital
Amman and the same distance from the King Hussein/Allenby Bridge Crossing on
the Jordan river. Jordan is providing 100,000m^2 of land, along with several
useful buildings at the site. SESAME will be open to scientists from any
country in the region or elsewhere. Because of this openness, organizers see
its potential as not only a world-class research center, but also as a
politically important example of scientific cooperation in the region. Such a
center will be the first of its kind in the region. The Center will be operated
and supported by its thirteen Interim Council Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt,
Greece, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan Palestine, Turkey and United
Arab Emirates) with support from countries including, Armenia, France, Germany,
Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Russia, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and the
US . Other countries which have expressed an interest to join this new
activity include, Tunisia and Yemen . It is hoped that the new center
will be able to mirror CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in
stimulating regional research collaboration [42,43]. Also much like CERN,
SESAME is under the political umbrella of UNESCO (the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and is expected to promote
science and foster international cooperation. A broad-spectrum of planned
research programs include, structural molecular biology, molecular
environmental science, surface and interface science, micro-electromechanical
devices, X-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, materials
characterization, and medical applications.
It is an effort of
several years that the idea of donation has evolved from a vision to a system. A turning point
was the Sinai Physics Meeting,
held at the Egyptian resort of Dahab, on the Gulf of Aqaba, in November
1995 . This Meeting was conceived by the Italian physicist Sergio
Fubini  of University of Turin, which led directly to the formation of
the Middle East Science Collaboration (MESC)
in 1997. MESC constitutes a network of scientists promoting research
cooperation between Europe, the US and the Middle East. The idea of relocating
BESSY-I was further taken through MESC in a series of meetings held under the
auspices of UNESCO, CERN, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical
Physics (Abdus Salam ICTP), and
others. Herwig Schopper, former Director-General of CERN and an active member
of MESC is the President of the SESAME Project’s Interim Council. Koichiro
Matsuura, soon after resuming the office of the Director-General of UNESCO, had
underwritten an additional US$400,000 to expedite the project. Jordan’s King
Abdullah II has pledged US$ 1M a year for five years and the member countries
are expected to contribute US$50,000 per year for the three years of
construction. The installation and upgrading costs of the synchrotron are
estimated at about US$20M. A similar amount is required over the next five
years for installing and equipping ten beam lines. Annual operating costs will
be about US$3.5M. With continued progress and support from the SESAME members
and several other sources it is expected that research will start in 2006.
The SESAME Training Committee at ICTP is
coordinating the programs which are enabling the trainees to join research
groups and technical teams at several synchrotron laboratories . They
are getting training in research and experience to work on the current
technical issues relevant to the maintenance, running and repairing of a
synchrotron light source. Several workshops (themes include: Materials
Research; Structural Molecular Biology; Bioinformatics; Structural Modeling;
Engineering Aspects; etc) have been held to train scientists in all aspects of
the SESAME Project: accelerator technology, beam lines, and research
applications of the synchrotron radiation. These workshops bring scientists
together from SESAME member countries along with experts from outside the
region. Among the participants from these Workshops, some were selected for
further training (from few weeks up to a year) in the premier synchrotron
radiation laboratories in Europe and the US. The International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) has offered five
grants of six-month fellowships for training in accelerator technology and
applications of synchrotron radiation .
Dutch accelerator and storage ring used for nuclear physics is being moved to
Dubna, to add to Russia’s Synchrotron capability . The original
facility, was located at the Institute of Nuclear Physics and High Energy
Physics (NIKHEF) in Amsterdam.
This will become the 1.2 GeV, Dubna Synchrotron Radiation Source (DELSY), located at the Joint Institute
of Nuclear Research (JINR) in
Siam, SESAME and DELSY are
very unique facilities as they are being built by relocating donated
We note that many
countries from the Middle East have yet
to participate in the SESAME project, and in fact some have chosen not to do
so. Science & education remains a very low priority in the region and these
countries may be missing an opportunity for international scientific
collaboration [49,50]. The same is true on the continent of Africa and to
a lesser extent in some parts of Asia. Many of these latter countries have
enjoyed very old ties with the Middle East. In recent decades, these ties have
been strengthened by their large presence in the region, leading to active
economic collaboration. This could have led to a keen interest in SESAME.
“Nature” in one of its editorials aptly advised, “... any potential funder
is not to hold back, for this would be a worthwhile investment. Initiatives
such as this do not come around often. When they do, they should be supported
unhesitatingly…” . Scientific cooperation across the geographical
and cultural borders helps stimulate not only the advancement of ideas in the
professional field, but also the building of lasting bridges and the
establishment of contacts on the personal and more importantly the
international level. The costs involved for participation are not much, for any
country—however small or poor—and the rewards are many. Some of the Western
countries are wisely joining (as observers) by contributing amounts as low as
just a few thousand dollars .
Beam Physics is the study
of particle and photon beams, their nature, their behavior, and interactions,
including the interaction of beams with matter, or beams with beams, and of
particle beams with radiation. The growth of beam physics is very intimately
tied with the expanding base of particle accelerator technology and certain
other beam-based devices. Accelerators are used in almost every field of
physics from solid state to elementary particles physics. Numerous beam-based
devices such as electron microscopes, etc.,
are playing a significant role in various areas of science and industry.
Accelerators are finding a variety of applications such as ion implantation and
lithography in industry, medicine radiotherapy, food sterilization, and energy
production. The need and importance of accelerators, and its impact on the
society are well established.
Unlike many other areas
of physics, beam physics is not well represented, to some extent because beam physics and associated technologies
are not yet part of the regular
university curriculum in most parts of the world. The learning of such an
interdisciplinary science is done to a very large extent individually and
through the very few schools when
& where available. This very curious scenario is exacerbated by the
absence of adequate number of forums.
With strong economic
growth over the last few decades, Asian countries have increasingly promoted
accelerator-based science. These large facilities require substantial resources
to sustain the required long-term R&D programs. This naturally leads to an
increased collaboration among these countries to share resources and expertise.
This led to the creation of the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA), which actively encourages
regional cooperation in accelerator science and technology . This
organization was formed in 1996 and its members now include Bangladesh, China,
India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan,
Thailand, Vietnam, and Australia .
The first Asian Particle Accelerator
Conference (APAC) was held in
1998 at KEK under the auspices of the ACFA, stressed the importance of regional
collaboration among Asians in the field of accelerator science and technology
as well as accelerator-based science. The Second APAC was held during 17-21
September 2001 in Beijing, China . APAC brings together hundreds of
participants from the numerous accelerator laboratories and accelerator groups
in universities in Asia and beyond. It provides a forum to exchange experiences
and views about on-going projects and the proposed accelerator programs
(upgrades, new facilities, etc).
The first Asian Accelerator School (AAS) was organized from 22 November–04
December 1999 in Beijing. The chief theme of the school was Physics and
Engineering of High Performance Electron Storage Rings and Application of
Superconducting Technology . The second AAS is scheduled to be held in Indore, India in 2003. AAS
serves the community through its training in accelerators & beam physics.
Globally speaking, the
International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) , provides an excellent framework for collaboration
and forums. ICFA along with ACFA and its European counterpart ECFA (European
Committee for Future Accelerators) provide very active forums to discuss and
implement plans for further promoting collaborative accelerator-based science.
Their primary purpose is to strengthen such collaboration, to encourage future
projects, and to make recommendations to governments. It is noteworthy to see
how the ICFA Beam Dynamics Panel has contributed to the accelerator & beam
physics. The very regularly held ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshops and the ICFA Beam
Dynamics Newsletters are well-attended and widely-read. ICFA workshops cover a
variety of topics. Among these, the topic of Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics
(QABP) needs a special mention.
QABP is a new field and ICFA is nurturing it via a series of meetings. The first in this series was held at
Monterrey, CA in 1998. The second
was at Capri, Italy in 2000 and the next
is scheduled to be held in Japan in January 2003. If not for ICFA, this
research frontier with the promise of technologies to come, would have lead an
unrecognized existence .
The European Particle
Accelerator Conferences (EPAC)
and the CERN Accelerator Schools (CAS)
are about two decades old as are the Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC) in the US and the US Particle
Accelerator Schools (USPAS).
While APAC and AAS were started in 1998 and 1999 respectively. EPAC and PAC are
held every alternate year respectively and APAC is held once in three years.
USPAS and CAS are organized several times a year, in different locations with
some common core-topics and some varying specialized topics. In contrast, the
AAS has been held only once and the expected frequency seems to be once in
three years. To enhance the required training and to sustain an optimum growth
of accelerator science & technology AAS need to be held more frequently.
There are only a few Accelerator & Beam Physics Associations/Societies operating
nationally. The Japanese Beam Physics
Club [15,16] and the Particle
Accelerator Society of China [18,19] provide the required Forums in
their respective countries. When created, such Associations/Societies will
provide the much needed Forums , strengthening the accelerator &
beam physics community nationally and beyond as is the case in other areas of
Physics. Possibly, the Asia Pacific Centre for Theoretical Physics (APCTP), Seoul, Korea could provide an
excellent venue for holding the Accelerator & Beam Physics Schools,
as it has been doing in various other areas of Physics . This will
take care of the participants from the region, and the wide-range of topics
(particularly, the beam theory), by bringing together physicists and
accelerator personnel together.
We note that ACFA has
only thirteen members (including Australia), and ICFA has far fewer number of
members from Asia. Optics is intimately tied with the field of synchrotron
radiation. The International Commission of Optics (ICO) has only ten territorial
members from Asia. Of these ten, seven are ACFA members and six possess
synchrotrons. Another related organization is the International Radiation
Physics Society (IRPS). It has individual members from 11 Asian countries.
Of these 7 are ACFA countries and 4 have synchrotrons.
In the context of
international cooperation based on accelerator sciences the European Laboratory
for Particle Physics (CERN) in
Geneva, provides the prime example. CERN, the world’s largest particle
accelerator laboratory was founded in 1954. It was Europe’s first major joint
venture. Starting with twelve signatories, the membership has grown to twenty
Member States. Several countries participate in other ways. The 6,500
scientists, half the world’s particle physicists, come to CERN for their
research, representing 500 institutions from over 80 countries.
CERN is one of the
oldest, but by no means the only cooperative facility. Another example from the
field of accelerators is the 6.0 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) located in Grenoble, France.
Conceived in 1975 and supported by 17 participating countries. Built on-time
and on-budget and now producing good scientific results, the ESRF is another
example of successful cooperation in Europe . ESRF is one of the three
most powerful hard X-ray facilities (the other two are: the 8.0 GeV SPring-8 in Japan and the 7.0 GeV
Advanced Photon Source (APS) at
Argonne in the US). The annual ESRF budget is US$60M. The price of construction
of ESRF was about US$550M. ESRF has forty beam lines. The 3,000 scientists that
use the facility each year carry out basic and applied research in physics,
chemistry, materials and life sciences. Its construction began in 1988 and the
first fifteen beam lines were opened in 1994. ESRF has a core membership of 12
European countries. Each is a corporate member of ESRF and pays a percentage of
construction and the operating costs of the facilities.
There are also several
Europe-wide organizations encouraging cooperation in science. One is the
European Physical Society (EPS)
which was created in 1968. It actively promotes physics and physicists in
Europe and represents over 80,000 members through its 38 national member
societies. EPS publishes several physics journals. Another is the European
Science Foundation (ESF) which
is committed to promoting high quality science at a European level .
ESF is the European association of national organizations responsible for the
support of scientific research. Established in 1974, the ESF currently has 70
Member Organizations (research councils, academies, and other national
scientific institutions) from 27 countries. ESF brings European scientists
together to work on topics of common concern, to facilitate cooperation in the
use of large research facilities, and to discover and define new projects that
will benefit from a cooperative approach. The Foundation also works with its
Member Organizations in the joint study of science policy issues of strategic importance in Europe. The ESF
has Standing Committees for the
Humanities and the Social Sciences enabling it to
implement science policies with ease. Nevertheless, the general budget of the
ESF for the year 2002 is only US$6M.
The last example is the
European Space Agency (ESA)
which provides a vision of Europe’s future in space, and of the benefits for
people on the ground that satellites can supply: smarter personal
telecommunications, better weather forecasts, global environmental studies, deep
earth mineral explorations, and strategic defense. It also develops the
strategies needed to fulfill the vision, through collaborative projects in
space science and technology . ESA has 15 Member States and
headquarters in Paris. The annual ESA budget is about US$3B.
About 80 % of the world’s
population lives in the Third World, many in Asia. Fewer than half the
countries in Asia are meeting recognized expenditure norms on education and are
far below the international norms for R&D [59,60] (expenditures for
defense oriented research is in addition to this). The related statistics for
the ACFA and CERN Member Countries are in Table-B and Table-C respectively.
After an introduction to
synchrotrons, we have described the status of synchrotron radiation facilities
in nine Asian countries and also mentioned some of the other accelerator
programs in these countries. We have followed the developments leading to the
relocated synchrotrons, which are enhancing international collaborations in the
regions of South-East Asia and the Middle East respectively.
The existing accelerator
forums are described along with their activities. Need and importance of new
forums are highlighted. We have further emphasized the need for closer
international cooperation among the Asian countries, and cited examples of
cooperation and collaborations among European countries.
Large laboratory projects
not only lead to a better understanding of nature, but also pave the path for
many technological and commercial spin-offs. As one famous example, in the
1980’s there was a demand to develop some means which would enable the
instantaneous sharing of information between the thousands of physicists
working in different institutions all over the world for large scale
high-energy physics collaborations. This eventually resulted in the World Wide Web.
sciences have made significant progress in the last few decades in Asia. Since
this region is the home to the largest number of developing countries we wonder
if accelerator-based science might provide a vehicle for more intensive
international collaboration. One idea for such a program would be an Asian Accelerator Laboratory (AAL) modeled after CERN, which was
created in 1954. Asia of today certainly has a distinct advantages compared to
Europe of 1954. Other factors include advances in accelerator sciences, and the
successful examples of CERN and other large-scale joint initiatives such as
ESRF, ESA. ECFA, CAS, and EPAC. Asia already has well-established institutions
-- ACFA, APAC and the AAS.
The feasibility of a
large-scale project such as the AAL can be analyzed in the following steps:
The AAL would initially
have one or more synchrotrons.
This is technically possible as several countries in Asia have the experience
and the expertise of making and running such facilities. The AAL may also have
projects such as the Energy Recovery
Linac (ERL) and the spallation neutron source (SNS) which are based exclusively on
proven pieces of technology. More ambitious programs involving a very large
machine (such as the next large hadron colliders) or designs based on
untested technologies are probably not appropriate for AAL.
The cost of constructing
a facility similar to say, the 6.0 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
(ESRF) is US$550M with annual
running costs of about US$60M (figure for the year 2002). The total
construction cost of the 7.0 GeV third-generation Advanced Photon Source (APS), at Argonne in the US is US$467M.
The combined total GNP of the twenty CERN Member States is about US$9,000B,
with net R&D of about US$190B. The corresponding figures for the thirteen
ACFA Member Countries are US$7,000B and US$145B respectively. The CERN member
states are spending on an average over 2% of their GNP towards R&D. The
average percentage for ACFA member countries (excluding Japan), is only 0.98%. This aspect of the expenditure
on R&D is also presented in Tables B and C. The estimated US$1B required
for the AAL could come by increasing R&D expenditures from US$145B to
US$146B. This is roughly equivalent to increasing the percentage from 0.98 to
1.01 of GNP to R&D. If we include Japan, the percentages will be less. In
these figures we have excluded Japan as it contributes more than half the total
GNP of the ACFA Member Countries and spends about 2.8% for R&D. The primary
funding for the AAL should preferably come from those countries which are not
yet meeting the norms of the GNP formula (assuming they can afford this). We
have focused on the ACFA countries for convenience and to demonstrate the
A more ambitious facility
such as the SPring-8 (US$1B) or the Large
Hadron Collider (LHC) at
CERN (US$2B) could also be explored. The costs of construction would be
distributed over several years of planning & construction, and shared by
the participating countries via
the GNP rule (pay in proportion to a country’s GNP) or any mutually convenient
arrangement. CERN funding is based on the GNP rule where as the ESRF is not.
The required time for the conceptual
study & planning is several years, before the actual
ground-breaking. This provides enough time to the funding governments to
reorient their expenditures, to enable the incremental funding of the proposed
Naturally, this is the
most challenging aspect. Implementing an AAL is more a question of political
will on part of the participating countries (their governments, and their
science policy makers in particular). The scientific communities could push
such a proposal via both traditional means and the Forums suggested earlier.
The SESAME project is
envisaged to be a mini-CERN in the Middle East [42,43]. The Siam light
source is intended to serve scientists throughout Southeast Asia .
Larger accelerator projects can no longer be realized by single countries.
ESRF; CERN projects such as the LHC (expected to be completed by 2006) and the
termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in the US in 1993, are
examples that should be examined closely by Asian countries in their own
perspective if they choose to work towards an AAL.
A facility such as an AAL
could provide an opportunity for collaboration and cooperation between scientists
and their institutions in countries spread across Asia [61,62]. Working
together on the many common problems that the Asian countries face, scientists
could promote greater harmony, facilitating a purposeful attack on the
formidable development issues faced by some Asian countries. An AAL could be a
precursor of several such facilities in Asia, setting examples for other
regions such as Africa.
There are several
countries which are now joining the world synchrotron map. Since this
does not happen often we have listed them in this appendix.
Towards the end of
2001 the Victorian Government announced that it is going to fund the
construction of an Australian synchrotron at the Monash University Campus in
Clayton, Victoria. This is the 3.0 GeV , BOOMERANG  synchrotron
facility, under the Australian Synchrotron Research Programme
The 2.9 GeV Canadian
Light Source (CLS) is one of the largest scientific projects in Canada. Its
construction started in July 1999 and cost about 175 million US$. It is
scheduled to be commissioned in 2003, with six beam lines .
A plan to build a
state-of-art synchrotron light source outside the Spanish capital Barcelona was
formally approved this March. The proposal for the Synchrotron Light Laboratory
(LLS) has been around for several years. The LLS will start as a 2.5 GeV
machine, with the option to upgrade to 3.0 GeV. It is presently anticipated to
cost about US $ 105 million and the projected running costs are about $10
million. The facility is scheduled to come online in 2008 .
The upcoming synchrotron facilities will be able to bridge the wide gap in
several of the under-represented regions of the World Synchrotron Map .
TABLE-A: Storage Ring Synchrotron
Radiation Sources [4, 5, 39]
(Beijing Syn. Rad. Factory)
(Inst. High Energy Physics)
(Univ. Sci. Tech. of China)
(Inst. of Nucl. Research)
(Centre of Adv. Tech)
(Centre of Adv. Tech)
Nano-hana (Japan SOR Inc.)
(Univ. of Tokyo-ISSP)
(Sci. Tech Agency)
(Himeji Inst. Tech.)
(Inst. Mol. Sci.)
(Inst. Mol. Sci)
(Electro. Tech. Lab.)
(Electro. Tech. Lab.)
(Electro. Tech. Lab.)
(Seoul National University)
HELIOS-II (Nat. Uni. of Singapore)
SRRC (Syn. Rad. Research Centre)
SIAM (Suranaree Univ. of Tech.)
* in construction as of June 2002
TABLE-B: Statistical Data for ACFA Member Countries
GNP per captia (US $)
In R & D (per million inhabitants)
On R & D
(million US $)
R&D (% of GNP)
UNESCO Statistical Year
Book (1999) .
World Bank Atlas (2001)
non-availability of data.
Statistical Data for CERN Member Countries
R & D
R & D
R & D
UNESCO Statistical Year
Book (1999) .
World Bank Atlas (2001)
non-availability of data.
J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition,
(Wiley, New York, 1999).
 Handbook of
Accelerator Physics and Engineering, Editors, A. W. Chao and
M. Tigner, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).
 Sameen Ahmed Khan, The
World of Synchrotrons, Resonance, 6 No. 11, pp. 77-86
(November 2001). (Monthly Publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS));
E-Print arXiv: physics/0112086.
 X-Ray Data Booklet,
Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National
 World Synchrotron
Map Website: http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/sr_sources.html
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at an X-Ray Free Electron Laser,
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 World Bank Atlas
END OF REPORT ATIP02.034r